StR,—A great deal of interest in education is always shown in the columns Of THE CATHOLIC HERALD, but seldom has there been more instructive reading than we find in the issue of April 2. We owe noir:awl Bealea our gratitude for his prompt and effective reply to those students of St. Charles's Training College who saw fit to cry "Wolf 1" when there was only a very salutary sheepdog in sight. More than anyone in this country to-day Professor Beaks should be able to give a fair account of the tortuous relations between Church and State, and it is very gratifying to find such a man reminding us that in Scotland it has been found more satisfactory to have thc religious schools brought under the effective secular control of the Government. There is, of course, no interference except to safeguard the efficiency of the teaching of secular subjects—a tutelage as reasonable as it is sometimes necessary. But what really makes us think hard is the discovery that now above all times there are young persons (intended within a year or two for the teaching of modern Catholic youth, and themselves presumably enlightened enceigh to read a progressive Catholic lay paper with all its stimulating questionings) who are able to hold up their hands in.. pious horror at the thought of the State's impinging upon the Catholic community, instead of regarding the Catholic community as part of our British community. among other things, and part of the world in which its children will have to live. I don't in the least mean that we should regard our membership of the State as the tie which imposes upon us our greatest duties, hut I do definitely mean that if we have Catholic schools at all vyr should be passionately eager to have them as effective as possible for the imparting of secular 'as well as of religious knowledge, if only because our bodies are the temples of the Holy Ghost and our minds the shrine of His sevenfold gifts. We should therefore think twice if not thrice. before objecting if it is competently decided that allround efficiency does require uniformity in the nation's schools, provided guarantees are given to respect in full the right e of all minorities, religious or otherwise.
[We welcome sober and, informed discussion -of Catholic educational problems One should, however, bear in mind that these problems are constantly. being attended to by Catholic authorities and action is taken in the light of the fullest knowledge.—EDITOR, CB.]
BOOKS FOR INTERNEES
slli,—The University Catholic Federation of Great Britain has been requested by the Abbe Cremand, Secretary of Pax Romana, to send books to Fribourg for distribution to internees in Switzerland and prisoners of war in neighbouring countries. Books of all kinds are required, but especially serious literature and university text-books in all subjects. Missals and prayer-books would be much appreciated, and also foreign dictionaries.
I should be grateful if you would make known this appeal to readers of Taa CATHOLIC HERALD, among whom there must be many who would be able to assist
in this work of charity Books, new or second-band, in small or large quantities, should be sent to; " Pax Romana," c/o Y.M.CA., Great Russell Street, London, W.C.1.
Hon. Asst. Secretary, International Section, U.C.F., 8, Lyndhurst Gardens, N.W.3.
HERE'S THE ANSWER
Who'are the Old Catholics?
Have Old Catholic bishops and priests valid Orders? (K. E. P.)
Would the episcopal consecration or an Anglican by an. Old Catholic bishop be valid? (K. E. P.) The Old Catholics are an heretical sect. Its members, mostly from German-speaking countries, broke away from the Church in 1870 when they repudiated the dogma of papal infallibility, One of the leading spirits in the movement was Von Schulte, professor of theology at Prague. Dollinger was also an adherent. The sect flourished for a few years mainly owing to the support that was given to it, for political reasons, by several German States. When this support was withdrawn the movement declined rapidly. In 1877 there were about 125,000 members in Germany and Switzerland alone, but by 1911 the total number of Old Catholics in the whole of Europe was probably not more than 40,000. There were among the Old Catholics, at the beginning ot the movement, validly consecrated bishops. It is possible therefore that the sect still has valid Orders. When, however, a religious body has been separated for a considerable time from the unity of the Church, Catholics do well to adopt a cautious attitude to the question of their Orders. Much depends on the way in which they have been conferred and the intention of the person conferring them. We are not in a position to give a definite answer with regard to the Orders of Old Catholics. The matter has not, as far as we know, been investigated nor has the Church made any pronouncement on it. The validity of such a consecration would be doubtful on many grounds. The majority of Catholic theologians hold that only a validly ordained priest can be made a bishop. If the Anglican has valid orders the difficulties mentioned in the preceding paragraph arise,
THESE questions are for yew enlightenment and entertainment No prizes are offered lot correct solutions. Answers will be found on page 5.
1. What important events in Church History occurred In the years 325; 622, 1870; 1929?
2. Whakis the Number of the Beast?
3. How many stripes did St. Paul receive of the Jews?
4. How many books are there in the New Testament?
5. How many tassels are there on a Cardinal's Hat?
6, Which are the oldest and the newest Religious Orders? When founded?
It &tint at the Meth
Sunday, April 12. Low Sunday. (White.)
Monday. April 13. Feast of St. Hermengild. (Red.) Tuesday, April 14. Feast of St. Justin Martyr. (Red.) Wednesday, April 15. ,Feria. (White.) Thursday, April 16. Feria. (White.) Friday. April 17. Feast of St. Anicetus. (Red.)
Saturday, April 18. Our Lady's Saturday. (White.)