A LBANIA.-Rallan. Pop. 1,003,000. Islam is the official religion of Albania but the large Christian minorities enjoy freedom. There are some 250,000 dissident Orthodox but the northern part of the country (the Ghegs) is pretty solidly Catholic : 100,000 of the Latin rite. An apostolic delegate iesides at Skodra.
ANDORRA.-Republic. Pop. 5,500, all Catholic. This state is all comprised within the Spanish diocese of TJrgel, whose bishop is one of the nominal " overlords " of Andorra and has the right to appoint a civil deputy (veguer).
AUSTRIA.-Republic. Pop, 6,762,000, 93 per cent. Catholic. Liberty for all religions is a fundamental law of the state. Since 1918 Catholics have had strongly to organise themselves against secularist aggression of various kinds. A concordat was concluded with the Holy See in 1934.
DELGIUM.-Kingdom. Pop. 8,248,000. Most of the people of Belgium are LP Catholic, but the Church is not established by the state and there is freedom for all religions. Clerics are exempt from military service.
BULGARTA.-Kingdom. Pop. 5,911.700. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church is the religion of the state : its clergy are forbidden by law to " interfere in the affairs of such Christians as are not subject to them." Catholics number about 40.000, of whom 5,500 are of the Byzantine rite.
FORMER CZECHOSLOVAKIA.-Pop, 14,729,000; 80 per cent. of the people are Catholic. half a million or so living in the Podkarpatska Bus being of the Byzantine rite. After the formation of the republic in 1918 there were serious schisms in both rites, towards a " national church" and towards Orthodoxy. All religions are free and equal before the law, but secularist influence is strong. Nevertheless there is an " understanding " between the republic and the Holy See, DANZIG.-Free city. Pop. 407,000, of whom 157,000 are Catholics. Since 1925 it forms the diocese of Danzig. The bishop lives at 16, Klosterstrasse, DanzigOliva.
DENMARK.-Kingdorn. Pop. 3,706,000. The Catholic religion was proscribed in Denmark from the Reformation until 1849, when freedom and political equality were extended to all faiths. Lutheranism, however, is the state religion. Catholics now number about 30,000 and since 1892 have formed the vicariate apostolic of Denmark, administered by the Premonstratensian canons regular.
ENGLAND AND WALES.-Kingdom. Pop. 39,973,000, of whom about 2 millions
are estimated to be Catholics. The Protestant Church of England is the established church of the country, but all faiths enjoy complete freedom; certain legal disabilities, however, apply to Catholics, viz., no member of the reigning house who is, or has married, a Catholic can be king or queen; Catholics are excluded from the offices of regent, lord chancellor and keeper of the great seal; nor can a Catholic be high commissioner of the Anglican Church or of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland, occupy posts in their ecclesiastical courts, or theological chairs at the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Durham and certain other scholastic appointments. Neither Catholic priests nor Anglican clergymen are eligible to be elected to the House of Commons. Great Britain maintains a minister to the Holy See, at 20, Via delle Quattro Fontane, Rome, which began as a special measure in 1915 and was made permanent in 1921. England and Wales were governed ecclesiastically by vicars apostolic from 1623 until 1850; the ecclesiastical system of Wales gradually became part of that of England at the time of the Norman conquest.
ESTONIA.-Republic. Pop. 1,129,800, 80 per cent. Lutheran. The few thousand Catholics (mostly foreigners) belong to the diocese of Riga in Latvia, but at present form a special administration apostolic with headquarters at Tallin.
FINLAND.-Republic. Pop. 3,762,000, nearly all Lutherans. There are some 2,000 Catholics who form the vicariate apostolic of Finland. They are in charge of the Priests of the Sacred Heart of St. Quentin, with headquarters at Helsingfors. Now new monasteries of any obedience may be established without government permission and all future religious must be of Finnish nationality.
FRANCE.-Republic. Pop. 41,835,000. Most of the people of France are nominally Catholic, but it is estimated that a good half of them are religiously indifferent. In 1905 the government abrogated the concordat of 1801 and ehurch and state were separated. the church going through a period of spoliation and oppression; but since the recovery of Alsace and Lorraine, where the concordat was and is still in force, the position of the church has greatly improved and during the past twenty years there has been a notable revival of religion, with a strong intellectual element. But church buildings are still esteemed the property of the state or of the local commune and the faithful have only the use of them; diocesan associations formed since 1926 for the administration of ecclesiastical property acquired since then are recognized by the state, though property confiscated before that date has not been handed over to them. The law of 1901 against religious orders has not been repealed, but numerous communities since 1918 have returned to France and remain there on sufferance but unmolested; the encouragement by the government in 1929 of the re-establishment of certain missionary-congregation headquarters in France was not devoid of sinister significance. Clerics are liable to military service. Diplomatic relations with the Holy See were restored in 1921.
eERMANY.-Republic. Pop. 69,000,000, of whom 23e millions are Catholic. A concordat was entered into between the Holy See and the government of the Third Reich in 1933, which concerned the whole of Germany and abrogated
the existing local concordats with Bavaria, Prussia and Baden. Subsequent
actions of the government indicate an intention to nullify the effects of the concordat, especially by a policy of undermining Catholic youth organisations and schools and by a campaign of denigration of the Church in her members. Cardinal Faulhaber of Munich has more than once denounced the government; Mgr. Groeber of Freiburg has expressed a fear of " Mexican conditions in Germany "; and the papal encyclical Mit brennender Sorge, of Palm Sunday, 1937, implied the gravest anxiety about the future of Christians in that country.
GREECE.-The Kingdom of the Hellenes. Pop. 6.205,000. The Greek Orthodox Church is the religion of the state and activities opposed to it are forbidden, though other recognized faiths are protected by the law. The 50,000 Catholics are mostly of hellenized foreign descent and of the Latin rite: the tiny body of pure Greek Catholics of the Byzantine rite is an object of much suspicion and dislike to the state church. There is an apostolic delegate resident at Athens, 2, Odos Sina. The Latin sees of Greece were set up by the Franks and Venetians after they had seized Constantinople in 1204.
HOLLAND.-The Kingdom of the Netherlands. Pop. 8,474,500, For historical reasons Holland is commonly regarded as a Protestant country, but in fact 45 per cent. of the people are Catholics, and their religious life is peculiarly strong. In theory all religions are equal before the law and in fact most inequalities are now abolished. Clerics are not liable for military service and receive small salaries and pensions from the state. The Holy See maintains an interntincio at The Hague, 93, Bezuidenhout; but Holland is not at present diplomatically represented at the Vatican. With certain exceptions, public manifestations of religion are forbidden. What is now Holland was mostly in the care of vicars apostolic from c. 1600 to 1853.
HUNGARY.-Kingdom (throne in abeyance). Pop. 8,684,000. 65 per cent. of the people are Catholics, the minorities being Protestant. Jewish and secularist. All religions are equal before the law, with certain restrictions on Judaism. Many ecclesiastical Institutions and properties were despoiled during the bolshevist regime of 1918-19.
ICELAND.-The Danish penal laws were in force against Catholics in Iceland 1 until they were abolished in 1874. The population consists of about 103,000 Lutherans and 175 Catholics, who form the vicariate apostolic of Iceland, erected in 1929.
IRELAND.-Free state and partitioned area. Pop. 4,228,500; 90 per cent. is 1 Catholic in the Free State and 33 per cent. in Northern Ireland. All religions are free throughout the country, but Catholics are discriminated against in the north. Though the civil rights of Catholics are now fully restored, even to the extent of self-government over most of the country, and although the episcopal hierarchy survived the Reformation intact, nevertheless the cathedrals and other buildings of the ancient Irish church remain in Protestant occupation. The Catholic Church is not established in the Free State but it is in fact the religion of the state and a diplomatic minister is maintained at the Vatican.
ITALY.-Kingdom. Pop. estimated at 42,500,000. Practically all the people of 1 Italy profess the Catholic faith, but any other may be freely exercised. By the concordat concluded between the Holy See and the Italian government in 1929 Catholicism is recognised as the religion of the state and its free exercise guaranteed; clerics in major orders and religious In solemn vows are exempt frem military training and combatant service and those having care of souls from non-combatant service as well; the secrecy of confession is recognised; except in Rome and the suburbicarian dioceses nominations to sees and to parochial benefices must be approved by the state and the incumbents must be Italian citizens; the state recognises marriage as indissoluble; instruction in Christian doctrine is provided for in all public schools; the state recognises religious orders and associations as juridical persons and supplements the revenues of benefices that are insufficient to maintain the holder; the Holy See forbids the clergy to take any part in politics; et cetera. Nevertheless the attitude of the Italian government is one rather of toleration than of whole-hearted profession of Christianity and from time to time there is a certain tension, not always open, between church and state.
LATVILATVIA (or Lettonia).-Republic. Pop. e. 2 millions, over a half of whom are A Catholics number 506,000. All religions are on the same footing and in 1922 a concordat was entered into with the Holy See.
I ITHUANIA.-Republic. Pop. estimated at 2i millions, of whom three-quarters are Catholic. All religions are equal, with religious Instruction in the public schools according to the wishes of the parents. A concordat was concluded with the Holy See in 1927.
UXEMBURG.-Grand duchy. Pop. 300,000, mostly Catholic. The papal nuncio at Brussels is internuncio for Luxemburg. Forms one diocese.
MONACO.-Principality. Permanent pop. 23,000, mostly Catholic. Monaco maintains a minister at the Vatican, 62, Via Vittorio Veneto, Rome.
NORWAT.-Kingdom. Pop. 2,884,000. Lutheranism is the state religion. Penal 11 laws against Catholics were abolished in 1845. There are about 3,500 Catholics, who are ministered to principally by Mariets and other missionary religious (the Society of Jesus is forbidden by law).
POLAND.-Republic. Pop. 33,418,000, about 25 millions of whom are Catholics; 3i millions of these are Byzantine Ruthenians (Ukrainians) in Galicia. The constitution guarantees religious freedom to all citizens, but the government
discourages the Catholic Byzantine element. A concordat with the Holy See was entered into in 1925.
PORTUGAL.-Republic. Pop. 6,826,000, most of whom profess the Catholic faith. After the revolution of 1910 church and etate were separated, religious orders expelled and ecclesiastical property confiscated; subsequent political changes brought a modification of governmental attitude; diplomatic relations were resumed with the Holy See in 1918 and in 1928-29 mutual accords were entered into touching religion in the Portuguese East Indies. But the concordat repudiated In 1910 has not yet been renewed.
RTiMANLA.-Kingdom. Pop. 19,033,000. Some three-quarters of the people belong to the Orthodox Church, which is in fact treated as the national church though in theory regarded as only " predominant " in the state : all religions may be freely exercised. There are 1e million of Latin Catholics (mostly of foreign origin) and the same number of the Byzantine rite, mostly In Transylvania; these last are also considered as a national church and have a certain official precedence, e.g., all the Catholic Byzantine bishops are ex officio senators of the realm but only the archbishop among the Latins. A concordat was entered into by the government with the Holy See in 1929. There is a papal nuncio at Buctirest, 5, Strada Dr. Lueger, and a Rumanian minister at the Vatican, I. Via Giuseppe Zanardelli, Rome. The state contributes towards the support of the Catholic clergy. The Latin circumscriptions were reorganised in 1930 in consequence of the political changes of 1919.
RUSSIA.-Union of Socialist Soviet Republics. Estimated pop. 147 millions. In 1914 there were in Russia (excluding Russian Poland) about 3 million Catholics, the majority of whom were Latins of foreign blood living in the south and west. In those days they were organised in one metropolitan and six suffragan dioceses (two " administered "), three of which are now included in Poland and Lithuania. The persecution of Christianity in Russia during the past twenty years is a matter of general history. The present position of the Church there is that of being once again " in the catacombs," and authentic information about the number of public churches open, etc., is difficult to come by.
SAN MARINO.-Republic. Pop. 14,200, all Catholics. San Marino is divided J between the Italian dioceses of Montefeltro (8 parishes) and Rimini (2 parishes).
cCOTLAND.-Kingdom. Pop. 4,842,500. From the point of view of civil law the position of the Church in Scotland is the same as in England, but the ecclesiastical organisation is distinct and independent. The number of Catholics Is estimated at 614,000, made up of indigenous Scots in rural parts and immigrant Irish in industrial areas. From 1653 until 1878 the Church In Scotland was administered by prefects (until 1604) and vicars apostolic.
SPAIN.-Republic. Pop. 24,584,000. Before the revolution of 1931 the Catholic faith was officially the religion of Spain; relations between church and state were governed by a concordat with the Holy See, canon law had the force of civil law, and the treasury contributed to the upkeep of the clergy. When the republic was established the concordat was not formally denounced but new legislation made it of no effect: church and state were separated, subsidies were withdrawn from the clergy and they became liable for military service, divorce a vinculo was introduced, the Society of Jesus was forbidden and other religious orders were not (at least in theory) allowed to conduct schools; touch ecclesiastical property was seized and churches, etc., of historical or artistic interest were esteemed to be owned by the state and loaned to the church. But the constitution provided for freedom of religious worship and teaching and mutual diplomatic relations were maintained with the Holy See. (Since the conclusion of the Civil War the Nationalist Government have revoked the anti-religious measures passe by the Republican Government.] SWEDEN.-Kingdom. Pop. 6,250,000. The Catholic faith was proscribed i Sweden from 1591 until 1780; not till 1860 could a person abjure the religio of the state (Lutheran Protestantism) without losing civil rights; other disabilitie were removed during the following thirteen years but there are still certal restrictions, e.g., on religious orders and their capacity to teach in schools. Th 4,000 Catholics form the vicariate apostolic of Sweden, erected 1783 and confided t the secular clergy.
SWITZERLAND.-Republic. Pop. 4,066,500. Some 37 per cent. of the peopl are Catholic, predominating notably in the cantons of Fribourg, Lucerne Ticino, Valais and Unterwaiden, where no official distinctions are made betwee religions; in some of the cantons Protestantism is the official faith supported by tin state, and other cantons have other arrangements. The Society of Jesus and th establishment of new religious houses are forbidden by federal law, diocese may not be erected without permission of the federal council, nor parishes unles means of support are assured.
YUGOSLAVIA.-Kingdom. Pop. 14,730,000, of whom 46 per cent. are Orthodo Serbs and 33 per cent. Catholic Croats and Slovenes. From the beginning o the kingdom after the Great War all religions of the country were declared fre and equal in law and religious instruction was obligatory in primary an secondary schools; in fact, Orthodoxy claimed and appears to have enjoyed a somewhat privileged position.
The above information is taken from " Orbit Catholicus," edited by Donald Attwater (Burns Oates and Washbourne), on which the map, specially drawn for the " Catholic Herald," is also based,