Catholic Action and Industrialism : For and Against Eric Gill —10.C. in England : a Writer Answers his Critics Pope and the League Sir Richard Terry on Inventive Printers Sales Appeal our Russian Corres pondent Asks for Information National Memorial to George V.
"HELL'S BELLS"! MUSICIAN YELLS (The above " heading" is supplied by Sir Richard Terry, not the " C.H."— Editor.)
SIR,—The freaks of the Printer's Devil are proverbial and I am one of his latest victims. Disapproving of the address which I duly supplied to the current issue of The Catholic Who's Who, he made me up a brand new one, all out of his own head.
I discovered (too late for correction) that he had translated me from the plebeianb purlieus of Battersea Park (where I live) to the patrician palaces of Kensington (in whose marble halls I have never dwelt save in dreams).
Each week brings its budget of re-addressed communications, smothered in
Post Office hieroglyphics. Personal reproaches for unanswered letters give disquieting indication of others which must have gone permanently astray.
Seven long months " have I battled with this bale." I am faced with the devastating prospect of five more unless you will (of your charity) insert this S.O.S. imploring all and sundry to note that the address, fathered upon me by this year's Catholic Who's Who, is the wildest of fictions.
R. R. TERRY.
• 87, Prince of Wales Mansions, S.W.11. CHALLENGE TO PROFESSOR STOCK.LEY
SIR,-1 suspect that " J. T. P." may be an Irish-Britisher, for he talks like one, e.g., of " the attitude of the R.C. Church," but from his argument I am at liberty to deduce that while posing as an enemy of murder, he is secretly encouraging it.
This may appear incomprehensible to an Irish-Britisher. If so, I am sorry, but I can have no interest in enlightening an anonymous correspondent. My quarry is Professor Stockley, a public man who puts his name to what he writes. If " J. T. P." is prepared, however, to act as a sandbag to the Professor, will he please repeat his assertions over his name and address. I promise to fill him with bullets, in the hope that one will bore its way through him to W.F.P.S.
By the way, I have heard of a French general at Verdun who was tortured by the thought that the bombardment gave him no time to play with the tame mice in his dugout. Professor Stockley reminds me of that ferocious soldier. I note that in the midst of war he has given himself up to the solution of the problem of tfle religion of Edmund Burke's wife. I hope that this entrancing puzzle will keep him engaged for all the years of happy rest to which his services to Ireland entitle him.
HUGH P. ALLEN.
146, Grace Park Road, Dublin. THE UKRAINE AND POLAND From A Catholic of the Eastern Rite
SIR,—As a Ukrainian and a Catholic of the Eastern Rite I would like to make a comment on the letters of Mr. Speaight and Count Bennigsen which appeared in a recent issue of your paper and to give two interesting quotations concerning Ukraine.
1. In Voltaire's work, Histoire de Charles XI!, Roi de Suede, the eminent writer says (in 1731):
" L'Ukraine a toujours aspire a etre libre; mais etant entouree de la Moscovie, des Etats du grand-seigneur et de la Pologne, il lui a fallu chercher un protecteur, et par consequent un maitre,
dans l'un de ces trois Etats. Elle se mit d'abord sous la protection de la Pologne, qui la traita trop en sujette; elle se donna ensuite au Moscovie, qui la gouverna en eclave autant qu'il le put. D'abord les Ukrainiens jouirent du privilege d'elire un prince sous le nom de general; mais bientot us furent depouillees de cc droit, et leur general fut nomme par la cour de Moscow."
2. The words of the well-known German Travellor J. G. Herder, in his Journal meiner Reise im Jahre, 1769, sounds rather prophetic when he writes: " Die Ukraine wird em n neues Griechenland werden : der schoene Himmel dieses Volkes, ihr lustiges Wesen, ihre musikalische Natur, ihr fruchtbares Land usw. werden einmal aufwachen : aus so vielen kleinen wilden Voelkern, wie es die Griechen auch vormals waren, wird eine gesittete Nation werden: ihre Graenzen werden sich bis zum Schwarzen Meer hin erstrecken und von dahinaus durch die Welt."
These are only two quotations, but the eighteeneth century produced a legion of works dealing with the Ukrainian Independence Movement. It was well-known all over Europe and for a long time occupied the diplomacy of the European chancelleries from the Bosphorus to the Seine.
V. J. KISILEWSKY.
27 Grosvenor Place, London, S.W.1.
Sta,—I would like to deal with two specific points raised in the letter of Mr. Speaight, as they indicate how easy it is to distort facts.
Mr. Speaight deals with the question of schools and admits the paucity of Ukrainian schools. It should be pointed out that even in these 457 so-called Ukrainian schools the important subjects of history and geography are taught in Polish. (Vide speech by Mr. M. Velykanovych in the Budget debate, February 8, 1935). He goes on to refer to bilingual schools as if they were an adequate substitute. The facts are that in the schools which have been made bilingual almost all the subjects are taught in Polish, and only a few unimportant subjects such as drawing, etc., in Ukrainian.
Mr. Speaight also says that the Ukrainian Separatist Movement " was a purely nineteenth century growth of the Intelligentsia, and was encouraged by the Austrian Empire to offset Polish National aims." This is not the case. It was a people's movement, as there were hardly any Ukrainian intelligentsia. The Ukrainians were a peasant people, with their clergy, chiefly of peasant stock, as their leaders.
Under Austrian rule, during the nineteenth century and up to the war, Galicia was invariably administered by officials of Polish nationality, who did their best to suppress every attempt made by the Ukrainians (or Ruthenians, as they were then called) to achieve equality. The Constitution of December 21, 1867, literally delivered them to the Poles:. a Polish Minister for Galicia was appointed, and the Polish language was introduced into the Administration, Law Courts and Schools. The Ukrainians protested and petitioned to the Emperor (1868) but in vain. The struggle attained tremendous national dimensions, and peasant unrest began to disquiet even Vienna. The climax was reached in 1908, with the assassination of the Governor of Galicia, Count Andrew Potocki, by a youag Ukrainian student. The Authorities were compelled to grant at least the barest concessions regarding elementary schools, language, etc.
Both the writers attempt to belittle the Ukrainian Movement and to pretend that it does not exist. Your columns could be filled many times over with extracts from authoritative historians describing the struggles of the Ukrainian people for many centuries; but I would content myself with one piece of concrete evidence, and will just conclude by saying that as I write I have before me an original map, printed in 1666, from the Atlas of Joannis Jansonii (Atlas Contractus), Amsterdam, showing Ukrainian Autonomous Territories (Typus Generalis Ukrainae),
2, Devonshire Square, London, E.C.2.
S1R,—Time and space will unfortunately not allow me to deal with the many interesting points raised by my critics, Mr. Speaight and Count Bennigsen, as I should have liked.
The main issue in reality, however, appears to be that of Ukrainian independ
ence. It is argued that the Ukrainians never were independent or national, but surely the centuries of Russian (or Muscovite) repression prove better than anything else the Ukrainian desire for independence. To quote but a few examples, Russian ukases in 1720 and 1721 and penal measures against various ecclesiastics slightly later are among some of the many weapons used against the Ukrainian language and nationalism. And after all, can the Irish be said to have lacked nationahmi or an independence movement because the latter was subjected likewise tt century-long suppression? Or the Czechs
Count Bennigsen claims that the fron tiers of the princedom of Halicz were no those demanded by modern Ukrainians History proves, however, that the exact re verse is the case, for the former contained Kiev and Galatz, extended to the Black Se, and bordered upon Lithuania. What mor could any Ukrainian possibly want?
Count Bennigsen also states that th question of Ukrainian independence wa never heard of until recent times. But h then goes on to admit that the cossacl state of Zaporocha (yet another name fo the Ukraine) was independent until it an rendered its freedom to Moscow! More over, surely Russia itself is a recent inven tion, and until 1700 was invariably know as the Grand Duchy of Moscow.
May I saw finally that I am, while diffei ing on many points, in agreement with m critics' conclusion? These various Sla nations (Poles, Ukrainians, Russians, ea . . . ) must be left to work out their ow salvation and the one thing calculated t prevent this is the interference of "frienc from abroad." On that point we are a agreed and it remains but to hope that th day is not far distant when these variot nationalities will find an equitable basis fc cordial relations, founded upon justied equality and respect of reciprocal nigh and obligations.
YOUR CENTRAL EUROPEAN CORRESPONDENT.
(This Correspondence is Now Close(
NEW RUSSIAN CONSTITUTION Does It Promise Religious Freedom?
Sia,—If Rev. Joseph Degen has any ii side knowledge of a change of things Russia his information would certainly 1 most valuable. Maybe he will tell us which .article the new draft of the col stitution " promises religious freedom ".
Having studied it very carefully in ti original published in the Isvestia I fail see in it anything of the kind; on the co trary it upholds its defence to exercise oi of the Church's most important missile) expressed in our Lord's command " Going therefore teach ye all nations ..
If Rear. Degen thinks that the granth of the vote to ministers of religion is ta tamount to " religious freedom," the h ters in the Soviet press, were he able read them, would quickly disillusion hii They either demand the restriction electoral rights of ministers of religion uphold the new draft on the plea th religion, being practically eliminate priests are no more dangerous. It is al advanced that the new constitution, I giving the right to work to priests a, ministers, will enable them to " make definite break with their accursed pas otherwise " to discontinue their religio
activities." From all that appeared Soviet writings it is quite clear that move towards any religious freedom being contemplated. "
YOUR RUSSIAN CORRESPONDENT.
ISLAM TEACHES US Do We Stand Together?
SIR,—A sentence struck me in the kac of to-day's Observer (July 5th):
. . . The reactions are extending the whole world of Islam . . . to the eigl million Moslems in India . . . These r not and cannot remain indifferent wk their fellow believers are put down British forces in Palestine."
Is not this solidarity of Islam a terri indictment of Christendom? And Chi tendom not only in the broader sense of " soul of the Church " but within her bo, Do we Catholics ever suffer " if one me her suffers anything "? Do we rise ir body when our brethren in the faith suf in Mexico, Spain, Russia—perhaps to-m row in France?
Why is it that we of the Faith have I that brotherhood that binds the sons Mahomet and is their strength? And there any hope for Christendom which 1 lost the brotherhood in Christ?
W. N THE NATIONAL MEMORIAL TC KING GEORGE V From the Earl of Plymouth.
SIR,—As your readers are aware, Lord Mayor of London has inaugura an appeal on behalf of the King George Memorial Fund.
After full consideration by a represen tive and authoritative committee, it has b decided that the memorial shall take form on the one hand, of a statue on Abingdon Street site at Westminster, on the other, of a fund to provide furt playing-fields to be known as " King Gee V Memorial Playing-fields," throughout country where they are needed. . . .
The Lord Mayor of London has n written to the leaders of the various It authorities in the country asking for t.1 support in this great National effort .
As Lord Lieutenant of the County, I therefore, writing to ask your readers support the appeal which is being made behalf of the fund in their locality, in
and generous measure. In case ti should be any, part of the county whicl not covered by a local appeal I have ope an account at the Midland Bank, 99 Mary Street, Cardiff, and would invite a one desiring to contribute to send U contributions to the Manager of the B payable to the " National Memorial Fi Account."
Pixt•tourv St. Fagan's Castle, Cardiff.