their letters to 300 words; otherwise they are liable to be shortened or omitted altoyet her. Letters must bear a name and address (not necessarily for publication) or they will be ignored.—Editor.
SOCIAL CREDIT S1R,—As a Douglas social-crediter I am Very grateful for the full and on the whole sympathetic treatment given to Social Credit in your columns, but there are several points upon which your Industrial correspondent and leader-writer are not fully informed.
In the first place. no fresh money will he created until all the statistics are in the hands of the National Credit Office, and it will only be created if and when these figures show that there is a surplus, actual or potential, to be distributed. So the redistribution of wealth (in the commonlyaccepted sense) is not the objective of Social Credit. Primarily. it is the distribution of economic or purchasing power for the consumpton cif a surplus which everyone agrees is being destroyed and restricted. In this connection the Pope's words should be remembered: " The earth, though apportioned amongst private owners, ceases not to minster to the needs of all."
The fact that " every economist of re
pute " has rejected the A B theorem is not true. Professor R. F. Irvine, formerly Professor of Economics at Sydney University. is a staunch supporter of the A + B analysis; there are others who privately or publicly admit it. But even if they all denied it, the man in the street would not be disconcerted. for these men. holding comfortable positions, have stood by, absolutely helpless and at variance with one another, in the face of a problem which has shocked the conscience of the world.
Social-crediters approach the question with all the gravity and impartiality of a court of law. If three mathematicians were asked to settle this question after hearing all the evidence for and against, 1 am convinced that judgment would be given in favour of Major C. H. Douglas and the A -IB analysis.
That so many people find social-crediters difficult is not a charge against Social Credit, but rather a charee against the educational system which has developed memory at the expense of understanding. Here, in Cardiff. with a population of a quarter of a million, there are but half-adozen men and not one woman who know the subject from A to Z.
Fortunately an appreciation of the situation is not dependent on an ability to grasp algebraic formulas. and the simplest mind can demand that the surplus shall be distributed by a national dividend. Already this demand has reached such a point in two constituencies in England that the M.P.s now representing them have decided to stand for some other divisions where the electors do not yet know what they want.
In Alberta the people did not vote for plans. but for results. Mr. Aberhart will not impose his own ideas, as the bankster press hopes he will, but on behalf of the people his eovernment will eive orders to the technicians, of whom Major Douglas is the chief. to prepare a scheme suitable
for the conditions in Alberta. The resnonsibility for details thus rests on the first-rate experts. and the second-rate ex. pests, i.e., the members of parliament, are there to give the order and see that it is not delayed or evaded.
119. Heathwood Road, Cardiff.
ETHIOPIAN WOMEN AND CHILDREN SIR.--The cloud of war has descended on Abyssinia, and those who realise the misery and suffering that this implies, not for the combatants only but also for the women and children, are asking what can be done to help. . .
True to its principles, the Save the Children Fund takes no sides in this quarrel. Its one concern is to aid those who suffer roost, and the call of Abyssinian children is one that it cannot dis regard. It remembers that it was always a strong desire of its founder, Eglantyne Jebb, to promote the work of child-saving in that country, and the opportunity and imperative need now seem to have come.
It is proposed immediately funds permit to organise relief in the first place for the refugees who will inevitably percolate into the neighbouring territories of British Somaliland and Kenya. and I am assured of the full co-operation of the authorities concerned. Later, with the experience thus gained and as the necessity arises it is intended to organise relief in Abyssinia itself. In view of the primitive conditions of the country aid must be extended to adults if the children ate to be effectively . helped.
My council is prepared to undertake this work according to the measure of support forthcoming from the public. I can guarantee that any contributions entrusted to the Save the Children Fund and addressed to the 1-Ion. Treasurer, 20. Gordon Square, W.C. I. will be used to the best advantage, and subscribers will be in
SIR,—Since the Foreign Office has now withdrawn its objection and authorised an appeal in the press, we lose no time in asking for funds for .the purpose of equipping a Red Cross unit to afford medical aid to the wounded in the war in Ethiopia. Though equally at the service of any Italian wounded or prisoners it will be primarily needed by the Ethiopians, who have no field ambulance and practically no medical aid at all.
The " British Ambulance Service in Ethiopia " has been accorded formal "recognition". by the Ethiopian government and by his Majesty's government under articles 10 and 11 of the Geneva Convention, and his Majesty's Minister at Addis Ababa has been so informed. It is working in consultation with the International Red Cross at Geneva, and the British National Red Cross has given an assurance that any steps which they may take to help the Ethiopian Red Cross will
be taken in conjunction with the "British Ambulance Service in Ethiopia," which would be glad to be absorbed in any such national movement.
The executive committee has already made preliminary arrangements so far as funds privately subscribed have permitted. It has secured a tentative panel of medical men, though further applications are invited. An officer has been despatched to recruit native personnel in Kenya and Uganda, for which the Colonial Office has given every facility. Another has gone to Addis Ababa to open communications with Horror and Berbera. The committee is represented at the capital by a missionary with some thirty years' stand ing, who is understood to have the cornplete confidence of the Ne.gus.
It is estimated that the cost of a properly equipped ambulance unit, consisting of one casualty clearing-station and one field hospital, with seven medical men and the necessary native dressers, etc., including vehicles for transport, and maintenance for a period of three months in the
field, will cost about £35,000. Each additional casualty -clearing-station would cost a further £10,000. There is no need to emphasise the extreme urgency now
that war has actually broken out.
Funds will be under the control of Bri tish committees in England and Ethiopia. Further particulars may be obtained from the secretary, 33, Alfred Place, South Kensington. S.W.7. Cheques should be drawn in favour of the "British Ambulance Service in Ethiopia," and sent to A. W. Trase. Esc!. (honorary treasurer), Barclays Bank, 54, Lombard Street, London.
E.C.3. COSMO CANTUAR.
GEORGE LANSBURY. LOTHIAN.
We wholeheartedly commend the ahoy,: tvto appeals to the generosity of our readers. +moms can
THE SEA WORKERS' CONGRESS
SIR, --Will you allow nte the courtesy of your columns to thank you for the splendid reports of the AMIC Congress published la your issue of October 11.
I was prevented by illness from being present at the congress, and I find myself still unable to reply to the many friends, known and unknown, who have written to me.
I now thank them for their kind messages, and I take this opportunity to thank in particular the Ladies of The Grail, the St. Vincent de Paul Society, the Catenians, the Police Guild, the Catholic Association. the Sea Cadets. the Catholic Shop Assistants', Clerks' and Warehousemen's Guild, the S'atholic Women's league and other societies, without whose generous help the meetings, arranged of necessily at very short notice. could not have been so remarkably successful.
To his Grace the Archbishop of Westminster the seafarers of Ilia world and their relatives will be ever grateful for presiding over this notably constructive congress, and to all the members of the hierarchy in this country for the warm encouragement and help given us in this congress.
In conclusion, may I thank all the priests who so readily responded to our appeal for Masses for the deceased seafarers; the religious communities. whose prayers were so generously given in aid of our momentous meetings; and all those who have sent in donations and subscriptions to this office, thus associating themselves permanently with this most necessary apostolatc to our seafarers.
R. A. HORNELL (Vice-Admiral). Chairman, AM IC.
AM IC, 23, Eccleston Square, S.W.I.
TAKING THE SWORD SIR,—" All they who take the sword shall perish by the sword." What does it mean? By taking the sword do I understand:— (a) Literally arming oneself for the purpose of overpowering by force; in which case what were the Crusades?
I a)) Adopting a bellicose attitude in DEFENCE AGAINST GAS Sta.-Mr. A. Grosch in his letter asks a number of questions and makes assertions that only emphasise a confusion of ideas and complete lack ot understanding of the present situation.
He discounts my quotations from experts and says I would not have made them had I had personal experience of these matters.
Ant I to understand that the experts whom I quoted—Major-General L. Jackson, ex-assistant director at the War Office, in particular—have had no personal experience? My reply was based on their conclusions and they ought to know.
I repeat there is no protection for the civilian population from gas attack. Mr. Grosch says there is—he was protected from a gas attack sometime between 191-1 and 19181 Mr. Grosch should realise that this is 1935, not 1914; that already over 200 varieties of poison gas are known to science besides other chemical and bacteriological devices. Take mustard gas, which attacks the eyes, skin and lungs; for this type of gas protective clorhing is needed (against this menace Mr. (Jrosch and his 1914 gas mask—or alternatively the 2s type that are to he issued --will prove useless).
Lieut.-Col. Vautier says that there ors: new gases which can penetrate the ordinary mask. General Peuderoux agrees, and adds, " the sale of the filter mask " (the kind used in 1914, Mr. (.irosch) " is not only the most horrible of frauds but also the most deadly." One assumes that these military gentlemen have had personal experience of the effectiveness or otherwise of masks.
There are gases requiring a filter so fine that old people, invalids and little children cannot breathe through it. A mask for these cases, however, has been evolved, connected to a portable oxygen cylinder. The mask costs about £10, a filling of oxygen lasting three hours costs about 25s. In an air raid, where would one go lo • a refill?
A German scientist, Nestles, says that in 1916 three German firms produced 150,000 filters a day. It would take. on this basis, at least 800 days to supply filters for the population of England. And then we should require gas suits.
Camps. Why does Mr. Grosch suggest them? To get the women and children from the threatened towns. But they will be wanted on munitions, not taking their ease in camps. Will Mr. Grosch suggest moving the munition factory to the camps? The towns will then be safe and the camps the objective of the enemy planes.
As to Mr. Grosch's concern about who will bring the other government down should the peace-lovers of this country oppose any government that concerns itself with war, my reply is that a desire for peace is not something peculiarly British.
The desire for peace is world-wide and one can safety leave the struggle for that end to the masses of the coun!..y concerned.
R. G. %toss. 1.01u.l0n, S.W.
"SCATTER THOU THE NATIONS . .
SIR,—The cartoon reproduced in the current Herald would perhaps be improsed by the substitution of "people" or "folk" for the word " nations." The Latin genies of the psalm is presumably capable of many translations, and I do not suppose that there is. or ever has been, a nwion that delighted in bayoneted bodies, tornout eyes, and shattered limbs. The normal man needs either to be dehumanised by the military machine or else stimulated by the dictates of defence before he willingly engages in mass slaughter.
The identification of individuals or groups with nations is unjustified and confusing; " sanctions," for example, would be excellent if applied to responsible individual war-makers, but to invoke them against a nation is extremely undesirable.
Incidentally, it is this false identification, and what springs from it, that presents the greatest obstacle to the organisation—as suggested by Mr. Gerald Wynne Rushton —of the 300,000,000 Catholics in the world.
October 11. Imes Nina.
BRITISH FASCISM SIR,—Mr. Christopher Dawson in his letter to the Catholic Herald dated Michaelmas, 1935. says that Fascism +o the ordinary man means political violenees, surely the reason for this is that the ordinary man does not know the condition of either Italy or Germany prior to the advent of Fascism. We, in this country, hope to attain power by ordinary constitutional means, before the country is !educed to such a condition that this becomes impossible.
What guarantee can be given that a successful dictator would not divide the spoils of capitalist finance between him self and the capitalists? At least Mr. Raven Thomson is entitled to be considered sincere, just as any other party organiser: it should be understood that Sir Oswald Mosley stands firmly behind him.
We quite agree that the corporate order or ideal is as yet hardly realised in this country, largely, I think, because of the well-nigh complete boycott which the press displays about the constructive work accomplished by Mussolini.
The B.U.F. can only preach the Corporate State, stating that they would introduce it if returned to power in a PRETEXTS FOR WAR S1R,—It is a little surprising to find the Catholic Herald disregarding so many facts and slipping into the unmoral reasoning of Signor Mussolini and his yes-men.
Even the opening words of your Editorial last week provoke a challenge: who wants this country to go to war over Abyssinia? Is it not enough to stand by a principle solemnly enshrined in a covenant to which we have set our scal?--especially (if we feel funky about honouring our obligations) now that nearly fifty other States have undertaken to back us up. Nor does it fit the present hour to recall the impotence of the League in the Vilna, Memel, or Manchurian affairs (I note that you do not mention Corfu). One has only to parody Signor Mussolini and suggest that two (Abyssinian?) blacks still don't make a (Italian?) white as a sound piece of moral theology.
As well argue that because the police force has shown itself corrupt or impotent on several previous occasions that robbery with violence should be recognised by the community. No one pretends that the League represents Catholic Christendom or rests upon wholly Catholic principles. But at least it has this much in common with them, that it condemns the arbitrary use of force for the attaining of national ends; and already his Holiness the Pope has once again declared that a war of aggression is plainly unjust.
As it runs clean counter to the Editorial policy of your admirable paper I shall be surprised if this letter is published; but in the interests of just thinking the leading article in question should not be allowed to go unchallenged.
A BARRISTER-AT-LAW. October 11.
fThe leader in cpiestion did not deny the tightness of armed sanctions under certain conditions, and we are in agreement with most of what our correspondent says on this point. But there arc certain motives for armed intervention which we hold to be illegitimate, and we think it necessary to speak of them because we have reason to believe that one or another of them is in fact actuating a good many of those who are pressing for it. Emma.] DOMESTIC SERVICE
SIR, Referring to the letter in your current issue, House-Parlourman does not seem to realise that the circumstances of domestic servants differ from those of most other workers.
The domestic worker is given a temporary home, and in some cases, if the worker is responsive, he or she may feel it to he a real home.
1 would like to know the answers to the following questions:— Where does House-Parlourman propose to spend the 16 hours free time each day?
Does he expect his employer to give him food and lodging during those hours?
Who is to do the work while he, and psesumably the other servants, take their eight hours each day, and all day Sunday, etc., off duty?
I am sure the happiest domestic workers are those who, content with reasonable off-duty time, take a real interest in their work and serve their employers willingly and unstintingly.
The discontented ones are those who are always thinking of themselves and their own rights and their off duty, etc., and who serve grudgingly.
These last should never attempt to enter domestic service, as they impart a most unpleasant atmosphere in a home.
A MERE MIS! HESS. October 14.
SIR,—In reference to the domestic problems referred to in your paper: Being a lady housekeeper and having a wide experience of all kinds of domestic servants, 1 quite agree that they are not treated well by the majority of their employers, and even those who excel in their duties are in most cases when leaving denied a good and just reference, which they so richly deserve.
It would be a splendid suggestion to make that when employers are seeking maids' characters they should have their own characters taken up by the servant or servants they engage. I feel that agencies do not fulfil their respective duties towards servants where situations are concerned.
I am in strong opposition to " LongSuffering Mistress's " letter in your paper.
don't suggest that all maids arc good and efficient, but out of five thousand it may be logical to say that a hundred arc inefficient. I have treated my maids well,. and in return I have got good service....
The emancipation of woman was meant for all women, not merely for those of us who pilot aeroplanes and drive motorcars, and others who in their various capacities have their eight-hour day, which they are entitled to have and with which I quite agree.
We read of Eastern nations being uncivilised, and we get disgusted at the way they treat their slaves. But if we are civilised, why not remedy domestic slavery and snobbery? . . .
As a lady housekeeper, having always a large staff under me, 1 am glad to write on the servants' behalf.
H AMPS I EAD.
TRADE REVIVAL SIR, -I have been greatly interested as a geographer by some amazing assertions being different commodities. it is impossible to use actual quantities, whilst prices, owing to the different factors entailed therein, arc irrelevant.
Secondly. 1 should like to know where arc the usable hut unused millions of acres? Would Mr. Jobbins please inform Mr. Walter Elliot, who would be glad of them to relieve the distressed areas.
Finally, I am interested to note that Mr. Jobbins can assert that one million sheep existed on the South Downs 130 years ago --this is certainly a contribution to existing knowledge; experts so far have been unable to (mote ally reliable figures for such a date.
R. J. J. University of London.
Sin,—May I he allowed space to reply to Mr. Jobbins in a few points?
(a) Economists: Economists, like most other scientists, do not labour under " impressions." Their task is to enunciate principles. Mr. Jobbins's knowledge of the last two centuries should enable him to realise that we are in a mess now just because the economists' principles have
1201 been put into practice. Economists resemble the Catholic Church—they are disliked and unheeded because their fundamental principles demand a certain degree of going against one's own desires and human feelings.
(b) Food Production: Even exercises in mental arithmetic cannot destroy facts. Is Mr. Jobbins aware that the volume of food imports into this country during the war fell only a little short of I929's total—the biggest of the post-war years? Does he recollect, in spite of that import, waiting in a queue for some hours just for a couple of pounds of potatoes? And food rations? Strange that anyone can talk about "feeding ourselves during the war," isn't it?
(c) Sheep in the South Downs: One hundred and thirty years ago we used steam and water as our driving-power.
To-day we use electricity. Have steam and water lost their natural qualities as drivers? This is said by analogy.
Apparently the collective wisdom of ec000mic scientists, geographers, agriculturalists, bankers, etc., who all agree that