FOR the first time in history, the Cardinal Electors include
an African, a Filippino, and a Japanese. Tanganyika's young Cardinal Rugambwa speaks of himself as "a mendicant prince in a land of banana trees, wild game and tom-toms". His home has neither electric light, telephone, nor running water.
The Filipino, Cardinal Santos, is only 54. The 70-year-old Cardinal Doi of Tokyo is so small that he used to have to stand on tiptoe to reach the embrace of Pope John when the Pontiff was enthroned.
Yesterday morning. the Cardinals assembled in St. Peter's for a Votive Mass of the Holy Ghost at the Altar of the Throne, when Mgr. Amleto Tondini, Secretary of Papal Briefs to Princes, delivered the customary oration De Eligendo Pontifice.
At 4.30 p.m., the Cardinals and their conclavists assembled at the Vatican Palace. and at 5 p.m. processed to the Pauline Chapel for a brief prayer, each vested in the violet cassock and white rochet of a Cardinal Elector.
Then. led by a master of ceremonies bearing the Papal processional cross, they walked, in order of seniority, to the Sistine Chapel, led by Cantors singing the Veni Creator. Inside the Chapel. they joined in the traditional prayer to the Holy Spirit.
Archbishop Enrico Dante, Prefect of Papal Ceremonies, proclaimed the Extra omnes, and al!. save the Cardinals, withdrew. The Apostolic Constitutions governing Papal elections were read. and the Dean, Cardinal Tisserant, delivered a short address.
Then came the oaths of office— by the Conclave Secretary (Mgr. Carpino), by the Prefect of Ceremonies. by the Governor of the Conclave (Mgr. Federico Callore di Vignale), by the Conclave Marshal (Prince Sigismondi Chigi), and by the prelate in charge of the ruote, the rotary drums that carry authorised material passing in and out of the Conclave enclosure.
The Cardinals retired to their cells, and a team of architects sealed off the area under the supervision of the Camerlengo and his assistants. Mgr. Calore di Vignale and Prince Chigi verified the seals and signed the required certificate.
This morning. at 9 o'clock, all the Cardinals will attend Mass
offered by the Dean. The Papal Sacristan, Bishop Van Lierde, will intone the Vein Creator, and Mgr. Darite will read the instructions for the internal and external closure of the Conclave.
The junior Cardinal Deacon. Cardinal Albareda, will draw the names of three Cardinal Scrutineers, of three more who will collect the votes or any Electors confined to their cells by bad health, and of three more to act as ballot inspectors.
All but the Cardinals will withdraw, and Cardinal Albareda will secure the Sistine Chapel door. If the first ballot yields no result. another will be taken at once. Cardinal Albareda will then summon the Conclave Secretary to assist at the burning of the ballot papers.
If there is still no result, a further ballot will be taken at 4 o'clock. The results of each separate ballot will be recorded by the Camerlengo and sealed up in envelopes for the Vatican Archives, They must never be opened without leave of a Pope.
The only link between the Conclave and the outside world is a turntable door at the head of the Pius IX staircase at the edge of the San Damaso courtyard. Because of their increased numbers, the Cardinals have this time installed a system of internal phones and electric bells.
The Electors will dine in the Leo XIII hall in the Borgia Apartments with a kitchen near the Parrot courtyard. Conciavists will eat in a separate dining room. An infirmary has been set up in the Hall of Benedictions. Although some Cardinals will be missing, 82 thrones have been set tip in the Sistine Chapel..
The traditional straw that burns with the ballot papers will this time be helped by plastic substances to ensure a rich black smoke when the vote is negative. and thus to avoid a rendition of the indeterminate smoke sienal of 1958. A push button will signal the ultimate election to Vatican Radio.
Most observer; seem to think that the Papal Chair will go to a moderate, one who will steer a balanced course between the ultranrngreesive and more conservative altitudes.
Cardinal Montini just abou holds On as "favourite" because of his conciliatory role in the Vatican Council, But many are talking about Cardinal Confalonieri. Secretary of the Consistorial Congregation, the carpenter's son, who was secretary to Pius XI for 18 Years. Cardinal Marella is also said to he "edging forward".
Cadinal Lercaro leads the nroPTCSSiVe selections. and Cardinal Sin i the conservative ones. No one really expects a non-Italian to win. Other "possibles" include Cardinals Ruffini. Valeri, Antoniutt t irbani, Roberti. Koenig, Suenens and Wyszynski. Cardinal Agagianian's health is not good. and some reports suggest he may ask not to be elected.
The general hope is that, as the Cardinals know eaeh other better this time than any group of Electors in the past. the Conclave will he over he the weekend.
The new Pope ..
ROME, Wednesday I N a Latin discourse on electing the new Pope, delivered to the Cardinals after Mass this mornmg. Mgr. Amleto Tondini, Secretary of Papal Briefs to Princes, sounded a note of caution and conservatism. He said that the new Pope would need "prudence to beware of the deceptions of enemies and to avoid their traps. especially if these are concealed in [rumpus ideas."
The new Pope, he continued. also needs "a firmness of mind to affirm without uncertainty the sacred dogmas of the Catholic Faith. to reject the errors contrary to it, to stand openly in defence of those who suffer persecution for justice's sake". This is regarded as a reflection of the criticism privately voiced by some Cardinals in regard to Pope John's efforts to negotiate with Iron Curtain powers. After praising Pope John's personal gifts, Mgr. Tondini went on: "That scene of people praying for Pope John in St. Peter's Square brings undoubted grounds for consolation. But those who look reality in the face must conclude that it represents a very heavy heritage for the man you call to rule the Church of God. "Would it be right to accuse of pessimism those who expressed reservations about the significance of some of the enthusiastic Drakes addressed to the Pope of Peace, and who wondered if they really all were an expression of souls who felt the true values of the spirit." Mgr. Tondini added that it would be up to the new Pope to set the time for the resumption of the Vatican Council. He added: "But especially will it be up to him to find out and judge whether the issues. the studies. and especiIlly the dispositions of all coneerned have reached that maturity from which one may expect the outcome hoped for by the healthier part of mankind."