SIR,-I was once asked who originated this expression. After many years I feel I have discovered the origin and would like to ask if any of your readers would agree. In 1773 Pope Clement XIV, famous for his temporary supresion of the Jesuits, was persuaded to cease the periodical publication oh the " Bull In Coena Domini." Many Catholic sovereigns had displayed marked opposition to it. This Bull was formerly published every Maundy Thursday and it was a Papal sentence of excommunication against heretics and others. The latest form was given to it by Urban VIII in 1627. Itparticularly hits at the English and Henry VIII's use of Praemunire and makes it a cause of excommunication for all those who appeal from the Pope to a future general Council. which is what Henry did when he heard the Pope had given sentence against him in the great Divorce Action; to Christians who ally themselves with the Turks which is what Francis I did for his own ends against the Emperor Charles V, but not for long: and those who maltreat Papal officials or falsify Papal bulls. This would certainly apply to much that was English. reminding a Protestant country each year and as it were stokine up the fires of anger. The " Bull In Coena Domini " may well be described in its annual result as like unto a hull in a china shop, the pun being emphasised by the purely
continental prenunciation of "Coena" as China.
Maurice Beaddell. St. Paul's House, Middle Green, La naley, Bucks.