of Private Schools'
" THE level of spiritual and cultural life of a country can accurately be assessed by its laws governing private schools", the Pope recently told members of an international conference of Heads of European private schools.
"A State which claims exclusively for itself the right to teach, and forbids individuals or groups to take on any responsibility in this field, demonstrates a pretentiousness incompatible with the basic needs of the human personality." The Holy Father once again stressed the teaching that the mission of the school does not derive from the State alone, but first of all from the family. and then from the social community to ahich it belongs. 1-le continued: —I-he formation of the human personality is the responsibility first of all of the family, and since. in large measure. the school is working towards the same end. it simply prolongs the family's action, and receives from the family the necessary authority to do so.
"The administrative apparatus of the modern State has grown out of all proportion, absorbing ever broader sectors of public life, that of the school in particular. Legitimate as this intervention is when individual action is power
There is need for the formation of an elite, "for the new European society now shaping itself." This elite, said the Pope. "requires to he imbued with the best traditions of humanity and of Christianity, convinced above all of the primacy of the spirit over the most elaborate forms of technical organisation." The Holy Father then appealed to his listeners to " work for the training and spreading of this elite, and in so doing to give to the peoples of the West the living strength which will help them to achieve their common destiny in peace and in brotherly collaboration."
New pact with the Reds
Italy's left-wing Nenni Socialists have re-allied their party with the Communists. Their central committee has announced that it will enter into a new " unity of action "pact with the Reds. This restores the relationship that existed from 1946 to 1956. Last year, the Socialists replaced the " unity of action " pact with a "consultative agreement " which hound them less tightly to the Reds. It looked for a time as though there might be a complete break.