occurred to " Parochus " that national hatred is always founded on some cause, and the only " explanation worth anything is the discovery of this cause. Nothing could be more easy to discover than the cause in this particular case. I do not suppose that "Parochus " would be astonished if he found that Poland was full of hatred for Germany, or that he would consider it to be a monstrous thing, but Poland's sufferings are small compared to those of Ireland during the 750 years of England's aggression. The study of only one aspect of it in Cardinal Moran's Persecution of the Catholics in /re/and would hardly leave much surprise in his mind. If he turns to more modern times, the short account of the Black and Tan war in Dorothy Macardle's The Irish Republic will supply further explanation; and for strictly content. porary history, an account of the conditions of the Catholics in the Six Northern Counties of Ireland under the eegis of the British Government and their troops and money, such as is contained in the Report issued by the English National Committee for upholding Civic Rights, will provide him with all the further data he requires for solving this problem.
One word more : Englishmen are not surprised at the continuance of hatred, caused by persecution and aggression, between other nations; it Is only when their own country is involved that they expect no reactions from past cruelties, and refuse to see present ones. It would greatly help that peace and amity between nations which is so desperately needed if this attitude were radically changed.
"Besides these friars every gentleman and lord of country hath his priests . . . Every friar and priest (italics mine) is called ' Father '; yea talk with the Lord Barry, the Lord Roche, or any man, no other name but 'Father '; Father such an one; Father such an one. So are they bewitched and blinded. . . ." (Cf. Preface to Calendar of State Papers, James I, Vol. II, 1606-1608, p. lxx, for tracing the reference to which and supplying the text my thanks are due to Fr. J. O'Connell, Kerry, and Mr Thos. Wall, M.A., Maynooth College.) This evidence is of a kind that requires a still earlier use.
I suggest, though I am too remote from a large library to investigate the evidence, that the Irish clergy of the Penal Days brought back from France the French mode of address (L'Abbe Edgeworth, L'Abbe MacCarthy . . . were once very well-known names), and, correctly enough, rendered Abbe as Athair (Father) while omitting " Monsieur " as not in accord with Gaelic idiom The English clergy, following Anglican llsago, would seem to have adopted "Mr " as a safe rendering of "Monsieur " until the Second Spring of the Church gave liberty to use a form more in harmony with the pastoral office.
DONAL A. REIDY. Killarney. M. CHEAVASA.