IT is reasonable to conclude that a man is a Communist if he acts like one. This is what the Jagans have done. One concludes to their Communism as a result of their activities, particularly since 1961.
In that year, as the result of an election success gained in August, Cheddi Jagan took over the full internal self-government of British Guiana. Last week I showed the Communist direction in which. as Prime Minister, he has been pointing, the policy of his Government.
The Communist sympathies of the Jagans, however, were more than manifest long before this time. On August 20th, 1951, Dr. Jagan denounced British imperialism on Prague radio and then attended the World Festival of Youth and Students for Peace in East Germany.
In November, 1951, he was present at the General Council of the Communist controlled World Federation of Free Trade Unions, again in East Germany. The WFFTU Bulletin for January 16th, 1952 contained an article by him demanding "real independence" for British Guiana.
The issue for March 1st printed an article by Mrs. Jagan entitled "Civil Li be in British Guiana" and in which a horrifying and completely inaccurate picture of the colony was painted.
Early in 1953. Mrs. Jagan attended the Third World Congress of Women organised by the Communist controlled Women's International Democratic Federation and was elected to its praesidium.
Against this background. the reader will not be surprised to learn that, since 1961. she has visited Pekiog and that. some time before, she and her husband spent rapturous hours in Castro's Cuba where Cheddi Jagan referred to his friend Fidel as "the greatest liberator of the twentieth century".
The Jagans founded the People's Progressive Party in 1950. It swept to victory in British Guiana's firstever election and took office in April, 1953. Six months later, in October, Cheddi Jagan was turned out of office and the colony's new constitution suspended by the British Government.
The country was in chaos. Politically inspired strikes had brought the sugar industry to its knees; attempts were made to suppress free trade unionism; the ban against well-known Communists was removed and they came into the country.
Communist propaganda poured in; the impartiality of the Civil Service was attacked; the Police Force undermined and any opposition countered with threats of violence.
The comment of the Governor at the time, Sir Alfred Savage, is interesting.
In a broadcast on October 9th, 1953, he said "over recent months there has been a planned and continuous programme of strengthening links with Communist countries with a view to making British Guiana a servile State where people arc compelled, under intimidation, to give up those freedoms which we all cherish".
The White Paper which laid the facts bare in the same month and year said that the Jagans were "zealets in the cause of Communism and have demonstrated by their actions that their objective is to impose a totalitarian control on their Party. the Trade Unions, the Police Force, the youth organizations and the State itself".
In the Commons on 'October 22nd, the then Colonial Secretary, Sir Oliver Lyttleton (now Lord Chandos) spoke of "the deadly design to turn British Guiana into a totalitarian State dominated by Communist ideas, whose whole political, industrial and social life would be concentrated in the hand and in the power of one party".
Towards the end of the period of direct rule that followed, the new Governor, Sir Patrick Renison. opening the third session of the Legislative Council in 1956, referred to the "dangerous activities promoted by the handful of Cornmunist trained agents who are causing the interruption of constitutional progress ... "
"Blimps", you say? Very well, let us take some statements of Dr. Jagan and his Ministers. made after or just before the achievement of full internal self-government after the election in August. 1961.
The assumption here is that, if a man says he is a Communist or gives clear evidence in statements that he is a Communist, then he is one.
On October 20th, 1961, the Hon. Charles Jacob, Dr. Jagan's Minister of Finance said in the Legislative Assembly in answer to Mr. Peter d'Aguiar, Leader of the United Force:
"My honoured friend. the Member for Georgetown Central, has attempted on the floor of this house to refute Marxism. This is a futile attempt. Learned university professors, of course of the bourgeois tradition, professional mercenaries, politicians, common vilifiers, have all tried to refute the unassailable logic of Maxism. They have all failed."
Predicting the decline of capitalism: "All this has been predicted by none other than that great genius. Karl Marx, and history has proved so far how very right this great genius was".
And then: "We will attempt to build a new society—a society which exists in more than one-third of the world today, a society in which there will be freedom and plenty for everybody; that is a genuine Socialist desire".
On January 19th, 1960, in a debate on the annual budget in the Legislative Assembly, the Honourable Jocelyn Hubbard, Minister of Trade and Industry, said: "To call a man a Communist is to write for him a certifioate of the highest integrity; and similarly, to call him an anti-Communist, is to imply the opposite".
On May 19th, 1960, in a debate in • the legislative asembly, the Honourable Brindley Berm, Minister of Natural Resources. said: "Do you want us to sell the land and forget future generations? Future generations will curse us if we are so unwise as to do that.
"This government is not worried about the accusations of Communism. One member attempted, under the veil of political theory, to talk about Communism, Socialism and other things. You cannot stop Communism.
"It is easier to stop tomorrow than to stop Communism, and those of you who try to confuse people by saying that this country is Socialist-bent should not do so. Anyway, they will not be confused for too long. There is no Communist State in the world today but people will continue to cloud the issue".
On November 1st, 1961, in a debate in the Legislative Assembly on the motion for the immediate independence of British Guiana, with an amendment by Mr. Peter d'Aguiar calling for a referendum. Dr. Cheddi inlay the Prime Minister said:
"If the people think that it is good and right to have an independent nation and an independent status, and they decide to vote for the Communists, will the decision of the Fascists be that the will of the people shall not prevail and that the Communists be thrown out of office?
"The world is joined today in a vital struggle between two opposing systems, Capitalism and Socialism; two opposing economic systems . . this country will show the world that it can have Socialism, provided Fascists will allow us to do it."
Still later in the same speech Dr. Jagan said it was his Government's intention to introduce Socialism by peaceful means, for "those people who laid down the laws of Marxism and Leninism have said that there are many roads to Socialism . . . some achieved power by revolution as in Cuba only because there was no other way open to the demoratic forces of the masses".
At the annual congress of his Party in April, 1960, Dr. Cheddi Jagan was reported in the Sunday Times for May 13th as saying: "We must not be divided on the issue of Communism. Communism is winning throughout the world--it will win everywhere".
At the inquiry into the disturbances of February. 1962, which preceded the publication of the Wynn Parry Report, Dr. Cheddi Jagan was cross-examined by Mr. Lionel Luckhoo, Q.C.
At the end of exhaustive questioning on the point. Sir Henry Wynn Parry said: 'I think you may take it Mr. Luckhoo, that you have established that he (Dr. Cheddi Jagan) is an avowed Communist and has not changed his views subsequent to Black Friday".
Finally, a type-written document, entitled "The Role of the PYO" (Progressive Youth Organisation) which I have seen and which. presumably, is the copy of an original, has this much to say with regard to the Marxist aims of Jagan's youth wing.
"Marxism-Socialism is our goal . . . The PYO member will be no salt water Socialist with a head merely full of lively slogans and catch phrases and socialist terminology. He must and will be a full-blooded Marxist that knows well what Marxism really means, and how it must be related to Guyana.
"Our Marxism must be of Guyanese 'adaptation', of Guyanese orientation, and it must be permeated with our Guyanese feeling and way of doing things .. . ". There is no doubt here about the objective: only as to the eventual flavour of the brew."
I have quoted nothing from Janet Jagan. There is no need to. Have a look at the early editions of Thunder' the Party paper which sbe edited and may still edit. for all I know. When Cheddi Jagan, in the late thirties, went to study dentistry at Chicago's Northwestern University he met and married lariet Rosenberg, who was then a member of the Young Communist League.
She has never swerved from her Communism from that time to this. 1 think she never will.