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measured by persons per square mile of arable land or by per capita consumption of rice. . . It is as much, if not more, a psychological factor. . . It is not absolute poverty which measures the degree of population pressure as a danger to peace, hat the felt lacks, the felt pressure on resources, the felt discrimination in the access to the resources of the world " (p. 18).
Speaking of areas where Japanese emigrants could easily make a living without displacing anyone, Dr. Thompson wrote:
"It is doubtful if the entire tilled area (in Oceania) exceeds 2,000-3,000 square miles and it certainly cannot exceed 5,000, while the total area is about 400,000 square miles. If at present 4,000 square miles are tilled (1 per cent.) and if 20 per cent. can he tilled, we can see that the possibilities for expansion are enormous" (1344).
(Incidentally that 20 per cent. would be more than three times the area now under cultivation in Japan) According to Dr. Thompson, the Japanese "could settle in relatively large numbers in such sparsely inhabited areas as Borneo, Celebes and New Guinea and succeed in agriculture, mining and industry" (p. 108).
In 1949 Dr. Thompson dismissed emigration, because of the difficulties involved, as " fan tastic " (I.N.S. despatch, April 19, 1949).
DART of the birth-control case rests on the assumption that Japan's natural resources will never yield more than the maximum estimate based on today's technology.
But to presume that technological development will go no further than what we know today would be as unwarranted as for a doctor in 1910 to insist that such drugs as penicillin and streptomycin would never be discovered.
In 1898, in a presidential address before the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Sir William Crooks forecast a wheat famine to come 33 years later.
He said : " Should all the wheatgrowing countries add to their area to the utmost capacity. . (it) would give us only. . . just enough to supply the increase of population among the bread-eaters until the year 1931."
His prophecy is recalled by Mr. Harold G. Moulton in his book, Controlling Factors in Economic Development (Brookings Institute, Washington, D.C., 1949), who notes the sequel. "Thirty years later, the leading nations were consuming more and were troubled not with rising prices but with the phenomenon of market surpluses and persistently falling prices. In the same book, Mr. Moulton says : " When one contemplates the progress made (by science in increasing agricultural yields) in the last 25 years, the prospect for the next century can hardly be overestimated ' p. 216). Regarding one possible method,
be writes : "The high-pressure synthesis of ammonia from nitrogen, if applied consistently to the soil in the form of cheap fertilisers, would prove comparable in terms of increased output " to the discovery of a sixth continent" (p. 209).
Apart from its denial of Divine Providence, a national policy of birth control implies defeatism in science as well as bankruptcy in world statesmanship.
WHAT will the birth control campaign do for Japan? Will it solve the problem of population support?
Dr. Paul K. Whelpton, assistant to Dr. Thompson and his successor as technical adviser in Tokyo. adnutted to me that even if birth con, trol were adopted throughout Japan, it would provide no solution within twenty years.
He could have greatly lengthened that period. The advocates of birth control all admit that Japan's population will be at least 90.000,000 in 1970. An official Occupation estimate, presuming the lowest possible fertility, places the population in 1970 at 100.000,000.
Dr. Thompson estimated in his book that general adoption of birth control in Japan would take "at least two or three decades" (p. 97).
In what decade of the 21st century the birth control policy might bring the population of Japan back to 80,000,000 or less, is not clear.
Wherever the solution of Japan's self-support problem may lie it is obvious that it cannot be found in the birth control programme within more than a generation. in this matter. a solution that is still ineffective after 20 years is no solution; it only affords an excuse for relaxing the search for sound solutions.
Dr. Thompson and his associates may have overlooked a seam= he
himself wrote in his book : " After all, we cannot hope to plan a world for a long future; we cannot look ahead at the needs and growth of population more than a few decades at most" Yet that precisely is what he and his group have been attempting.
AT most, the policy of State
backed birth control can only slow down the rate of population increase, without solving the selfsupport problem.
But the price for the Slowing down will be the quickening extension of other problems, moral and social. The first months of the programme gave indications of the havoc it would entail.
Nineteen firms were manufacturing contraceptives for sale immediately after the Government permission was given. Then the law setting up the Government's birth control offices was passed. Some four months later 35 firms were in the business.
High-school girls were employed to peddle contraceptives during their vacation. Trams, newspapers and magazines were lurid with shame less advertisements. Birth control films were exhihited in public theatres. I was present at a showing of these pictures for a group of Occupation officials most of them birth control advocates. One admitted to me afterwards that they 'stank" They did.
Another said that they could not be shown even "for adults only" in American theatres but he understood that they did not offend Japanese mores t Members of the Japanese Government's committee on birth control denounced these movies to me as "shameful" and blamed the Occupation authorities for permitting them. Occupation officials concerned with Japanese films said that they saw no grounds for intervening and that it was a matter for the Japanese police.
The Government found it necessary to issue warnings against "harmful" contraceptives.
The business boomed. It might be demoralising hut it was lucrative. Two American firms wrote to Tokyo, trying to get some of the trade.
The consequences of all this for the rudderless youth of a warshattered. non-Christian country like Japan are easy to visualise, but the birth control advocates never mention that aspect,
is illuminating to see what is
included in the Eugenics Protection Law, as revised in May, 1949. to set up birth control offices.
Incidentally, the Diet and Government must have been ashamed of what the law really meant. "Birth control" is called "conception adjustment" in the English text of the law, and abortion is called "interruption of pregnancy."
The law gives extraordinary latitude to abortionists. It permits an unborn child to be killed, at the doctor's discretion, if either parent has any of the diseases that the law lists as hereditary. Occupation medical officials admit that the list is unsound.
The unborn child may be killed if either parent has a third cousin or a grand-aunt afflicted with one of these diseases which include colour-blindness!
Abortion is permitted also, but with the district "Eugencies Commission" approval, wherever pregnancy or childbirth "is feared to injure the mother's health seriously owing to physical or financial reasons."
The sterilisation clauses in the law parallel a Nazi decree of 1933, but go further. They authorise and even oblige a doctor to violate professional secrecy by reporting to a local Eugencies Commission that his patient suffers from an alleged hereditary disease (again including colour-blindness). The patient may then be forcibly sterilised.
These gross violations of elementary human rights are the context for the legal provisions establishing artificial birth control as a Government enterprise in a post-war Japan. The Occupation authorities did not intervene when the law was being passed, regarding it as "strictly a Japanese matter." baring seven months of last year, !egalised abortions took 93,863 lives in Japan--more than the two atomic bombs killed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Furthermore, Japanese authorities admit that their record of these abortions is incomplete.
IN Japan, a defeated, perplexed, non-Christian country, still under 113 Occupation, the social
'planners who prescribe birth control have seen an unprecedented opportunity.
Now for the first time in history, birth control propagandists have succeeded in masterminding a Government into making contraception a State policy-without any mandate from the people, it shoqld be noted.
Japanese and foreigners helped to attain this result. The foreigners included members of two wealthy endowed U.S. institutions, the Rockfeller Foundation and the Scripps Foundation.
If this seeming victory is not challenged by public opinion in Japan and abroad, birth control blocs will use it as a precedent and encouragement for offensives elsewhere.
Meanwhile a generation of Japanese may realise-too late-the truth of what the American Catholic Women's Clubs of Tokyo and Yokohama wrote to General MacArthur last January: "Artificial birth control is inherently immoral, socially harmful and incapable of solving Japan's economic difficulties within any period for which this generation can reasonably plan."