of Bolshevism should be attacked both in Press and Parliament, but it is not less a national service to re-state it. The Universal Church is the salt of the earth, and must nut lose its savour. The State; in other words, is in desperate need of the teachings of the Church to complete and correct her life; and you, Sir, have put forward these teachings and warnings with all the courage of a patriot.
lt would he a poor patriotism which, when certain elements in the State are taking a false step, compromised so much with the guile of flattery as to speak no warning.
The Holy See has given us very clear warnings in recent years. We have been warned against the absolutism of Bolshevism and its hostility to religion. We have been warned of kindred dangers in National Socialism. We have been warned that in the very different case of Fascism the State may claim too much, encroaching on the rights of the Church, the individual and of the home. And we have also been warned, with particular reference to the United States of America, against pluto-democracy, and its materialism. What the Pope sees as the danger there is that power passes into the hands of big business, and individual voters lose the sense both of corporate life and the connections of rights with duties, which in Italy and elsewhere, but above all in Portugal, have given a new sense of social Justice to the political thoughts of our time.
We have been led astray all over Europe by the obsolete ideas of exaggerated nationalism. On the one side it was commercial, on the other military; whereas the fact we must recognise is the interdependence of nations. Behind the crass errors elf Bolshevism, which has affected all the socialisms, is, however, the fact that law and order must be not only political but economic ; that capitalism must be controlled ; that there must be an authority which prevents starvation, and looks towards providing the people as a whole with the riches and leisure which nature and science have combined to lay at their disposal. Behind the crass errors of democracy is the truth that talent and enterprise should be given as free a career as justice and social welfare allow. The teaching of the Church, illustrated by the example of Salazar, shows when to strike the balance and where to voice the warning.