Cardinals of Authority and Importance
THE CONCLAVE SITS AS WE GO TO PRESS.
An election may take place before this paper is in the hands of the majority of its readers. It is not likely to be delayed beyond Monday as The Cardinals will strive to shorten the length of the Conclave, more particularly in anxious times such as the present.
We give below excerpts both from the messages of Our Roman Correspondent and the Vatican Radio, all of which have been written well before the outcome, whose importance and interest will not be diminished even after the news of the elestion.
The names of Cardinals mentioned by Our Roman Correspondent are not intended as idle forecasts but provide useful knowledge about the positions of the leading Cardinals of the Church, whose weight and influence will be notable in any event in the next Pontificate.
IMPRESSIONS OF THE CONCLAVE
From Our Own Correspondent
The proverb " Who goes into the Conclave as Pope, comes out Cardinal " was given prominence by Eneas Silvio Pie.colornini, later Pope Pius II, in the XVth century. Since that time it has teen on the lips of everyone at the time of Conclaves.
There has certainly been up to the present some Cardinal to whom everything before the Conclave pointed as the likely Pope—one has hut to think of the late Cardinal Gasparri (" the greatest Cardinal of quarter of Trastevere, but was soon called to teach diplomacy at the College M er ti mes " before the last
CI n ) Conclave.
Strangely enough, there is no one Cardinal at present. to whom people in Rome are pointing as the obvious successor to Pope Pius Xl.
This Conclave has opened in an at m °sphere different from t to ca which elected the last three Popes, when there existed political enmity between I he I I oly See nial Italy.
The present Collet!! ve opens in independent t(Tritory and with an atmosphere of friendliness on the part of Italy. But not only the Conclave has changed its atmosphere ; Italy has I)lssnne a first-class world power slimMussolini took over, and some Cal lad ies—especially in France —are asking whether it is possible for an Italian Cardinal when elected Pope to appear as a neutral observer
of world politics. The Popes of Italian nationality in recent times have been probably the only world figures who have judged with impartiality but firmness issues of peace and war.
Since the possibility of a non-Italian being elected Pope is always present in every Conclave (and now it seems to be pretty sure that in the last Conclave Cardinal Merry del Val had about a dozen votes in the first ballot) the following Cardinals from abroad are considered to have most weight and authority: Cardinals Hlond, Seredi and Gonealves Cerejelra. Cardinal Hlond is a Salesian—the second Cardinal of that Order—has a good acquaintance with Roman customs, is Archbishop of Gnesna and Posen (Poland), was born in 1881 and became Cardinal in 1927. Cardinal Seredi is a Benedictine of Hungarian nationality, lived many years In Rome, where he achieved renowned repute for his knowledge of Canon Law. He was born in 1884 and became Cardinal in 1927.
Cardinal Gonealves Cerejeira is Patriarch of Lisbon, and was born as recently as 1888. He has published many articles and books, and was created Cardinal in 1929. He has done much good work in collaboration with President Salazar for the good of Portugal.
Italian Cardinals of Influence
Among those who are or Italian birth, and who are looked upon as of great importance, the name of Cardinal Francis Marmaggi figures prominently. He is a Roman, born in the poor Trastevere quarter on August 31, 1876. Before his ordination to the priesthood he became a Doctor in Theology, and soon after ordination was attached to the Secretariate of State, whence he eventually was promoted to become Secretary of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, whilst at the same time he ministered to the spiritual needs of the people of the Trastevere quarter.
He later became Apostolic Nuncio in Rumania, and was given other special missions (notably in Jugoslavia). He went from Bucharest to Prague as Apostolic Nuncio, and remained there till 1925. In 1928 he was sent as Nuncio to Warsaw, and in 1935 became Cardinal.
He now occupies many important positions in Rome, and is a priest admired by all who know him. His simplicity, charity and apostolic zeal are widely known.
The Next Secretary of State ?
Cardinal Maglione is regarded as the ablest diplomat in the Sacred College, and if not elected Pope may be the next Cardinal Secretary of State.
Ile was born 62 years ago in Casoria, in the Archdiocese of Naples. His early studies he made at Naples, and before ordination entered the Capranica College in Rome. After ordination he exercised his priestly functions In the poor
for Noble Ecclesiastics. In 1908 he was attached to the Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and in 1910 was sent to Switzerland as the representative of the Holy See. This position he filled for six years with conspicuous success and then he was appointed Apostolic Nuncio in Paris.
Under his guidance the prestige of the Holy See rose high, and the French Government decorated him with the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour for his work for peace. He is Cardinal since 1935, and now occupies many positions in Rome. He is an expert in politics and religious questions.
Cardinal Pellegrinetti, born in 1876, was much consulted by the late Pope Pius XI, who discovered his worth at the Ambrosian library. He was secretary to the late Pope at the Nunciature of Warsaw, and in 1922 was appointed Apostolic Nuncio in Jugoslavia, where his efforts for close understanding between the Government there and the Holy See were crowned by the Concordat signed between the two. He was created Cardinal in 1937, and now fills positions in Rome. He has a command of a dozen languages—English included.
In Conclave, two names generally figure conspicuously at the beginning. Cardinal Pacelli, in virtue of his office and close association with the late Pope, Is likely to be one of them. •
Cardinal Massimo Massimi is also of Roman birth, and is 62 years of age. He studied at the Appolinare Institute for Canon Law in Rome and also at the Italian Roman University. He has a lawyer's mind, and for sixteen years taught Canon Law. He was appointed to the Congregation of the Rota, which tries important matrimonial questions, and became the Dean. He has published various important Canon Law works.
All his priestly life he has given any spare time at his disposal to teaching youths their religious duties, and even now, when Cardinal, he is seen every Sunday and Thursday hearing confessions, offering Mass for Roman youths or teaching them their religion.
As Your Correspondent watched the Cardinals coming out of St. Peter's during the Requiem Masses for the late Pontiff, he was struck by the outstanding figure and personality of this Cardinal. He is Cardinal since 1985.
One other Cardinal in Curia is of great importance—Cardinal Fredrick Tedeschini. He is 64 years of age and was born at Antrodoco, near Rieti. From the local Seminary he passed to the major Roman Seminary where he was ordained priest. In Rome he obtained three Doctorates, and under Leo XIII entered the Vatican service. Under Pius X he was Chancellor of Papal Briefs. Benedict XV appointed him to the Secretariate of State, and in 1921 sent him as Apostolic Nuncio to Madrid. It is due to his efforts that Catholic Action in Spain was started. He was created Cardinal in 15)33, but the publication was made only in 1935, and now occupies the position of Notary here.
Of the Cardinals outside Curia, the name of Cardinal Della Costa, of Florence, is of influence. He comes from the province of Veneto, and studied at the Royal University of Padua. He was assistant priest in various Paduan parishes, and was regarded on all sides as a saint. He became Bishop of Padua, constructed many new churches there, and gave new life to much Church activity. He was promoted to be Archbishop of Florence and became Cardinal In 1833. He gives all he possesses to the poor, is strict with himself, and like Pius X, who was from Veneto, is admired by all who know him.
Cardinal Schuster is a Benedictine of the Cassinese Congregation, and was born in Rome in 1880, and became Abbot of St. Paul's without the Walls. A close student of liturgy and archalology, he published, among other works, the famous Oacreinentary. He is Cardinal since 1929, and is now Archbishop of Milan.