Summary of sections 67-72 in Catholic Herald for May 28.
The part of the Encyclical printed last week deals with the question of co-operation against the common enemy. First of all Catholics are urged to give loyal support to such forms of professional and industrial organisations, however and by whomever originated and directed, ids-hi-h. are in harmony with the teaehing and to work within, these on behalf of the Faith. Next, a plea is made for unity • among Catholics themselves. Individual paints of view must be enbordinated to tile Cause the principles of which have been 50 frequently and clearly expounded by papal authority. Finally, His Holiness addresses Ii imself to those not of the Faith who have all interest in defending religion against the attank now directed agai t it of Atheistic Cumin un ism .
DUTIES OF THE CHRISTIAN STATE Aid to the Church 73. Such is the positive task, embracing at once theory and practice, which the Church undertakes in virtue of the mission, confided to her by Christ, of constructing a Christian society, and, in our own times, of resisting unto victory the attacks of Communism. It is the duty of the Christian State to concur actively in this spiritual enterprise of the Church, aiding her with the means at its command, which although they be external devices, have nonetheless for their prime object the good of souls.
It is the duty of the Christian State to concur actively in this spiritual enterprise of the
In a conflict between Christian civilisation and Atheistic Communism the Christian State cannot be neutral. Such neutrality, instead of indicating a judicial impartiality in matters indifferent, reveals a fatal agnnsiicism in regard to questions of fundamental importance. Such agnosticism makes the pone inanity an easy prey to the energy of dogmatic materialists.
74. This means that all diligence should be exercised by States to prevent within their territories the ravages of an anti-God campaign which shakes society to its very foundations. For there can be no authority on earth unless the authority of the Divine Majesty be recognised; no oath will bind which is not sworn in the Name of the Living God. We repeat what We have said with frequent insistence in the past especially in Our Encyclical Caritate Christi: "How can any contract be maintained, and what value can any treaty have, in which every guarantee of conscience is lacking? And how can there be talk of guarantees of conscience when all faith in God and all fear of God have vanished. ? Take away this basis, and with it all moral law falls, and there is no remedy left to stop the gradual but inevitable destruction of peoples, families, the State, civilisation it
This wieans that all diligence should be exercised by States to prevent within their territories the ravages of an anti-God campaign which shakes' -society to its very fasnrIMotjRL The prevention of atheistic propaganda. opposed though it he by intqllectua le urging the necessity fur fisselorn of thought, is a prime duty of the State anxious to preserve' its traditional eiviligatkat :17i-fasten' of thought is not served by the encouragement ef a movement the purpose of which is to suppress forcibly all that is opposed to its own materialistic philosophy.
Provision for the Common Good 75. It must likewise be the special care of the State to create those material conditions of life without which an orderly society cannot exist. The State must take every measure necessary to supply employment, particularly for the heads of families and for the young. To achieve this end demanded by the pressing needs of the cornmon welfare, the wealthy classes must be induced to assume those burdens without which human society cannot he saved nor they themselves remain secure. However, measures taken by the State with this end in view ought to be of such a nature that they will really affect those who actually possess more than their share of capital resources, and who continue to accumulate them to the grievous detriment of others.
It must likewise be the special care of the State to create those material conditions of life without which an orderly society cannot exist.
Coercive measures of a negative character, if they are to be justified, must be aecorn
paoied by the abolition of those social and economic evils which fester Communism and give it an appearance of righteousness. In fighting disease preventive measures arc better than surgical operations.
Prudent and Sober Administration 76. The State itself, mindful of its responsibility before God and society, should he a model of prudence and sobriety in the administration of the commonwealth. Today more than ever the acute world crisis demands that those who dispose of immense funds, built up on the sweat and toil of millions, keep constantly and singly in mind the common good. State functionaries and all employees are obliged in conscience to perform their duties faithful!' and unselfishly, imitating the brilliant example of distinguished men of the past and of our own day, who with unremitting labour sacrificed their all for the good of their country. In international trade-relations let all means be sedulously employed for the removal of those artificial barriers to economic life which are the effects of distrust and hatred. All must remember that the peoples of the earth form but one family in God.
The referenceto " economic barriers to economic life " might seem to indicate that His Holiness is pronouncing on the question of Free Trade versus Protection. It should
be noted however that the " artificial barriers to economic life" in question are those which " are the effects of distrust and hatred." The reference does not inculpate a nation which, in its desire to build up its own industrial and economic life and to make itself independent of outside sources, interposes barriers to unnecessary imports. An influential seetion of social thought holds that it is the tralle-war fostered by international finance and commerce which is mainly responsible for the spirit of " distrust and hatred" between nations existing to-day.
Unrestricted Freedom for the Church 77. At the same time the State must allow the Church full liberty to fulfil her divine and spiritual mission, and this in itself will be an effectual contribution to the rescue of nations from the dread torment of the present hour. Everywhere today there is an anxious appeal to moral and spiritual forces; and rightly so, for the evil we must combat is at its origin primarily an evil of the spiritual order. From this polluted source the monstrous emanations of the communistic system flow with Satanic logic. Now, the Catholic Church is undoubtedly pre-eminent •among the moral and religious forces of today. . Therefore the very good of humanity demands that her work be allowed to proceed unhindered.
Everywhere to-day there is an anxious appeal to moral and spiritual forces.
The State cannot itself generate the spiritual forces necessary for the conduct of
its own life. To protect itself against • a materialism that would destroy its civilisation it needs the support of the Church. This does not imply that the Church should be established but only that it should be aceoriliel fell freedom, in the peril-a-mantic of its proper work including the education and training of youth.
78. Those who act otherwise, and at the same time fondly pretend to attain their objective with purely political or economic means, are in the grip of a dangerous error. When religion is banished from the school, from education and from public life, when the representatives of Christianity and its sacred rites are held up to ridicule, are we not really fostering the materialism which is the fertile soil of communism? • Neither force, howeVer Well organised it be,noir earthly ideals however lofty or noble, can control a movement whose roots .lie In the excessive esteem for the goods of this world.
79. We trust that those rulers Of nations. who are at all aware of the extrcine danger threatening every people today, may be