Tradition And Progress Reconciled In New Charter
From a Special Correspondent Details of the organisation of the new Spain as they are officially planned are to be found in a new book just published: Corporativism° Gretnial—La OrganizciOn Social en la Espana Nueva.
The history of labour and industry in Spain are studied in the first part where it is shown that the ideal labour charter is a compound of modern needs and of the old Catholic tradition of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
The best political system to safeguard human relations in industry and labour is worked out in the second part. A comparison with a totalitarian country like Germany is made and it is stated tluit such a system would not suit Spain.
The forty-three fundamental points of the new Spanish constitution are given and explained in the third part of the book.
The Theory One of the first paragraphs states: " It is necessary. therefore, to form the structure of a new Spain, building it on solid foundations, which will give everyone the assurance that they will be able to develop their activities, each one within his circle. To achieve this it is necessary. above all, that the social organisation of our country should be perfect in order that labour problems can be solved in the most human,
just and Christian way. It is necessary that the employee may be able to earn his living amply without coercion. without threats, with that sacred liberty which is the basis of the yielding and improvement of labour. It is necessary that the capital, feeling safe, should come to nourish the industries in order that they may grow and
improve. It is necessary that the employee should understand that the improvement of his condition is limited by the development of the industry in which he works but cannot surpass it. It is necessary that the employer should. consider his employee as a friend and an associate, and, finally, it is necessary to have a system by means of which labour problems may be solved in a friendly way, almost automatically. a system in which the coercive power of the State need not be used."
The Old System
A similar system used to exist, it is stated, and caused the arts and industries to flourish and attain their greatest splendour during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The trade unions in the Spain of that time were called brotherhoods, and employer and employee joined in forming them.
Socialism, Communism, Marxism and Sindiccdism separated capital from labour and made them enemies. thus bringing about the present situation.
In reviving the old methods the author refers to the Encyclicals Rerum Novarurn of Pope Leo XIII and Quadragesimo Anno of Pope Pius Xt.
The author studies the organisation at present in Germany, Italy, Portugal and Austria. Referring to Germany he writes: " This system can be tolerated accidentally by disciplined people, such as the Germans. whose will is stronger than their imagination, hut under equal circumstances. it would he a failure in any Latin country."
The 43 Principles
The third section contains a full description of the new organisation in Spain and the forty-three principles of labour which bring together the State, capital and labour in joint patriotic effort to make the country prosperous by safeguarding the interests of everyone only means of making labour and capital yield their best fruit.
These forty-three principles contain every farm of co-operation between capital and labour and every provision is made to safeguard not only the interests of the working classes but both their spiritual and physical health.
Tribunals before which all claims are to be submitted are formed by an equal number of employers and employees and presided over by the State.
Thus in the seventeenth "The uncivilised process of lock-out and strike are prohibited," and the workmen or employers who employ these methods will be judged by a criminal court and sentenced accordingly.
Every form of insurance is contained in these basis, which afford complete protection for the employee.
No man or woman under eighteen can be employed to do work which is in any way unhealthy or dangerous, or which requires great physical effort.