`YOU SHALL BE MY WITNESSES'
EXPERT ON UNITY
CARDINAL BEA, Si.. Presi dent of the Secretariat for
Christian Unity and a member of the Central Preparatory Commission for the Vatican Council. To the non-Catholic the Vatican's prime interpreter of the ecumenical aims of the Council: to Catholics an outstanding expert on Christian unity, German-born Cardinal Rca was in England only a few weeks ago for the important Hcythrop talks. Aged 81, former confessor to Pius XI and Pius XII, vigorous, writing more than 2000, letters annually, and said to have given more interviews in the past two years than all the Cardinals of the Curia put together in the past half century, Cardinal Bea's long academic
brought him more than most into regular contact with nonCatholic thought. He has arranged for the presence of non-Catholic observers at the Council and has greeted the ever-increasing number of nonCatholic church leaders who have visited Pope John.
THE WORKING arrangements and official procedure for Vatican H will be mainly in the hands of the Pope's Secretary of State, Cardinal Amleto C i c o g n a n i, and Archbishop Pericle Felici.
In his Motu Proprio issued September 5, Pope John named Cardinal Cicognani president of a seven-member Secretariat for Extraordinary Affairs which will deal with any unforeseen problems. The 79-year-old Cardinal was President of the Commission for the Oriental Church, preparing for the Second Vatican Council. He is an expert O n the problems of Eastern Rite Catholics.
THE INTERNATIONAL and universal nature of the Church in Council is represented by the leaders pictured here and picked at random from among the 3,000 prelates converging on Rome from the East and the West. These are some of the leaders who are in the forefront of the struggle facing the
Church to-day and they can be expected to bring constructive comment to the Council Chamber. Here are leaders in ecumenism, in social action, in the mission world, and in Scripture study.
CARDINAL RUGAMBWA. A member of the Central Preparatory Commission for the Councii, the Church's first negro Cardinal of modern times will be chief representative of Africa's 24 million Catholics when the Council opens next week. Born in 1912 in Tanganyika, a convert at eight, an earnest scholar
(now speaking six languages), Laurean Rugambwa became the first native bishop in Tanganyika history. He has done much to further the growth of trade schools and colleges in his coffee• growing homeland and he founded the Social Union of St. Augustine to train his people for public life--one of Africa's most pressing needs. Pope John made the then 47-year-old bishop a Cardinal in 1960.
CARDINAL AGAGIANIAN, President of the Commission on the Missions. As Prefect of the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, this 66-year-old Cardinal—born in South Russia in the same region as Joseph Stalin—looks after forty million Catholics in mission lands. Until he resigned a few weeks ago as Patriarch of Cilicia of the Armenians he was also spiritual leader of 200,000 Armenian rite Catholics on six continents.
A profound scholar, speaker of 12 languages, Peter Agagianian could almost be called Cardinal "Unity". His own eastern rite affiliations give him a special interest in Eastern Orthodox Churches, Protestants admire him and non-Catholic leaders have gone to him for authoritative guidance on the coming Council.
CARDINAL MONTINI was the first Cardinal to be appointed by Pope John XXIII, an honour he had declined from Pope Pius XII in 1953.
For the past seven years the 64-year-old Cardinal has been the Archbishop of Milan, Italy's largest diocese, and a leading one in its importance to the Church throughout the world. In 1954 when he left a 30 year career in the Vatican Secretariat of State to head the Archdiocesqq of Milan, this studious pkelate carried with him 90 cases of books. Many of the books were sociological studies that reflected the Archbishop's interest in the problems of his new See, a key industrialcommercial centre of Italy, afflicted with the social unrest that Communism exploits. The brilliant Italian Cardinal has long been anxious to find the spiritual and social formulas needed to restore the faith of Europe's de-Christianised workers.
In Milan he has devoted himself to the revitalisation of the faith of its four mi1lion inhabitants. Parish boundaries have been redrawn to keep up with population shifts. New churches have been built in combination with schools, meeting halls and welfare offices. This "Bishop of the workers" has visited factories, made speeches to workers, and is anxious to increase the priestfactory apostolate.
In 1957 he experimented with the "Big Mission". The entire diocese was placed in a state of mission. The best preachers were enlisted to give a three-week mission in which 30 per cent of the Milanese took part. In his recent Lenten pastoral letter he predicted that, from the aspect of social teaching, the Council will he historically superior to all p r e v i o us councils. CARDINAL OTTAVIANI, President of the Theological Commission and a member of the CentraT Preparatory Commission for the Council. As Prefect of the Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office, the Church's most important doctrinal department and concerned with preserving the purity of Christian doctrinal inheritance, Cardinal Ottaviani will hardly forget the importance of ancient traditions when he goes to the Council meetings. The 72-year-old son of a Roman baker who has held many key posts in the past 34 years is noted for his strict orthodoxy and is a noted authority on Canon Law—he holds degrees in both Canon and Civil law. As President of the Theological Commission for the Council it has been his task to set down the doctrinal and moral matters on the agenda. There are indications that these include the doctrine of original sin, moral abuses in modern society and the whole question of salvation outside the Church.
CARDINAL SLI.VA HENRIQUEZ, S.D.B., of Santiago, Chile's 54-year-old Sa�csian Cardinal with a Law degree, one of a family of 16 children, rose from priest to Cardinal inside three years. After ordination in 1938 he combined a 20 year teaching career with leadership in the social action field. To-day he'll take you by jeep to the slums of Santiago to show why he led the Chilean bishops in the establishment of the Christian Housing Institute which sets up housing cooperatives and savings and loan associations for the building of homes. Although Cardinal Silva has no special job in the Council he will join with other outstanding prelates of Latin America to push for the continued strengthening of the Church in South and Central America, which, after all, is home to one third of the haptised members of the Church.
CARDINAL WYSZYNSKI, Primate of Poland and Archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw will probably be the only Cardinal to come from behind the Iron Curtain to attend the Vatican Council. He travelled from Warsaw to attend a meeting of the Central Preparatory Commission last February and there is every hope that he wilt be present next weekAged 61, Stefan Wyszynski has doctorates in social science and canon law. During the last World War he taught Catholic social ethics in the Polish underground university. He became Bishop in 1946, then Archbishop and Primate. His struggles to build up his war devastated province and his repeated outspokenness against the Communist regime led in 1953 to his arrest and imprisonment.
After three years the then Cardinal was released and he returned to Warsaw. There the Cardinal has continued to speak out against unjust taxes on Church property and other anti-Church measures. His struggle is to keep alive the Catholic character of his country despite constant interference and restraint by Communist atheistic authorities.
CARDINAL ALFRINK, Archbishop of Utrecht, is one of the leaders of the ecumenical movement. His position, in a country equally divided between Catholic and Protestants numerically, offered special challenges and opportunities. The fact that, today, some of the most advanced efforts at converg ence have taken place in Holland. and that the denominations live in exemplary harmony, is in no small measure due to his personal influence.
EVER OPEN DOOR
CARDINAL LERCARO Archbishop of Bologna served as a member of tht Central Preparatory Corn mission for the Vatican Coun cil. Scholar, teacher, liturgist former military chaplain skilled organiser, helper o' the wartime anti-tascis underground and implaccablr foe of Communism, Cardina Lercaro has kept close to hi. people. Born in 1891, Gia cnmo Lercaro studied it Genoa where he was ordained and made further studies a the Pontifical Biblical Insti lute in Rome. He served a an Army chaplain during th first world war. After th war, he was professor o Sacred Scripture at the majo seminary in Rome and spen Ii is free lime in directin; youth activities, catectietica classes for children, chant' drivcs and theology stud; groups for laymen.
Throughout the Secon� World War he was parisl priest of Geona's larges church. In 1947 he becam Archbishop of Ravenna, any immediately took steps t' overcome the rising tide o Communism in his See. H organised lectures and confer ences to present the Catholi answer to Communism, an increased the Church's socia work among the poor. II 1952 he was transferred t' Bologna and within a yea was made Cardinal by Pop Pius XII. He continued hi works of charity, turning hi home into dormitories, stud ha11.s and recreation rooms fo orphan boys. To meet housing shortage he also bui a small village for the each. live use of young marrie couples.
Cardinal Lercaro has writ ten on liturgy and on archi lecture. He organised the fin Italian National C'ongresse of Sacred Architecture an Art. In 1959 he lectured i the U.S.