By Benedict XVI
General audience (2011) St Teresa, whose name was Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada, was born in Ávila, Spain, in 1515. In her autobiography she mentions some details of her childhood: she was born into a large family, her “father and mother, who were devout and feared God”. She had three sisters and nine brothers.
While she was still a child and not yet nine years old she had the opportunity to read the lives of several martyrs which inspired in her such a longing for martyrdom that she briefly ran away from home in order to die a martyr’s death and to go to heaven: “I want to see God”, the little girl told her parents.
A few years later Teresa was to speak of her childhood reading and to state that she had discovered in it the way of truth which she sums up in two fundamental principles. On the one hand was the fact that “all things of this world will pass away”, while on the other God alone is “for ever, ever, ever”, a topic that recurs in her best-known poem: “Let nothing disturb you, Let nothing frighten you, All things are passing away: God never changes. Patience obtains all things. Whoever has God lacks nothing; God alone suffices.” She was about 12 years old when her mother died and she implored the Virgin Most Holy to be her mother.
If in her adolescence the reading of profane books had led to the distractions of a worldly life, her experience as a pupil of the Augustinian nuns of Santa María de las Gracias de Ávila and her reading of spiritual books, especially the classics of Franciscan spirituality, introduced her to recollection and prayer.
When she was 20 she entered the Carmelite Monastery of the Incarnation, also in Ávila. In her religious life she took the name Teresa of Jesus. Three years later she fell seriously ill, so ill that she remained in a coma for four days, looking as if she were dead.
In the fight against her own illnesses too the saint saw the combat against weaknesses and the resistance to God’s call: “I wished to live,” she wrote, “but I saw clearly that I was not living, but rather wrestling with the shadow of death; there was no one to give me life, and I was not able to take it. He who could have given it to me had good reasons for not coming to my aid, seeing that he had brought me back to himself so many times, and I as often had left him.” In 1543 she lost the closeness of her relatives; her father died and all her siblings, one after another, emigrated to America. In Lent 1554, when she was 39 years old, Teresa reached the climax of her struggle against her own weaknesses. The fortuitous discovery of the statue of “a Christ most grievously wounded”left a deep mark on her life.
The saint, who in that period felt deeply in tune with the St Augustine of the Confessions, thus describes the decisive day of her mystical experience: “and... a feeling of the presence of God would come over me unexpectedly, so that I could in no wise doubt either that he was within me, or that I was wholly absorbed in him”.
Parallel to her inner development, the saint began in practice to realise her ideal of the reform of the Carmelite order: in 1562 she founded the first reformed Carmel in Ávila, with the support of the city’s bishop, Don Alvaro de Mendoza, and shortly afterwards also received the approval of John Baptist Rossi, the order’s superior general.
In the years that followed she continued her foundations of new Carmelite convents, 17 in all. Her meeting with St John of the Cross was fundamental. With him, in 1568, she set up the first convent of Discalced Carmelites in Duruelo, not far from Ávila.
In 1580 she obtained from Rome the authorisation for her reformed Carmels as a separate, autonomous province. This was the starting point for the Discalced Carmelite order.
Indeed, Teresa’s earthly life ended while she was in the middle of her founding activities. She died on the night of October 15 1582 in Alba de Tormes, after setting up the Carmelite Convent in Burgos, while on her way back to Ávila. Her last humble words were: “After all I die as a child of the Church” and “O my Lord and my Spouse, the hour that I have longed for has come. It is time to meet one another.” Teresa spent her entire life for the whole Church although she spent it in Spain. She was beatified by Pope Paul V in 1614 and canonised by Gregory XV in 1622. The Servant of God Paul VI proclaimed her a Doctor of the Church in 1970.
Teresa of Jesus had no academic education but always set great store by the teachings of theologians, men of letters and spiritual teachers. As a writer, she always adhered to what she had lived personally through or had seen in the experience of others, in other words basing herself on her own first-hand knowledge.
Teresa had the opportunity to build up relations of spiritual friendship with many saints and with St John of the Cross in particular. At the same time she nourished herself by reading the Fathers of the Church, St Jerome, St Gregory the Great and St Augustine.
Among her most important works we should mention first of all her autobiography, El libro de la vida (“the book of life”), which she called Libro de las misericordias del Seilor (“book of the Lord’s mercies”). It was written in the Carmelite convent at Ávila in 1565. In it, she describes the biographical and spiritual journey, as she herself says, to submit her soul to the discernment of the “master of things spiritual”, St John of Ávila. Her purpose was to highlight the presence and action of the merciful God in her life. For this reason the work often cites her dialogue in prayer with the Lord. It makes fascinating reading because not only does the saint recount that she is reliving the profound experience of her relationship with God but also demonstrates it.
In 1566 Teresa wrote El Camino de Perfección (The Way of Perfection). She called it Advertencias y consejos que da Teresa de Jesús a sus hermanas (“recommendations and advice that Teresa of Jesus offers to her Sisters”). It was composed for the 12 novices of the Carmel of St Joseph in Ávila. Teresa proposes to them an intense programme of contemplative life at the service of the Church, at the root of which are the evangelical virtues and prayer. Among the most precious passages is her commentary on the Our Father, as a model for prayer.
St Teresa’s most famous mystical work is El Castillo Interior (The Interior Castle). She wrote it in 1577 when she was in her prime. It is a reinterpretation of her own spiritual journey and, at the same time, a codification of the possible development of Christian life towards its fullness, holiness, under the action of the Holy Spirit.
Teresa refers to the structure of a castle with seven rooms as an image of human interiority. She simultaneously introduces the symbol of the silkworm reborn as a butterfly in order to express the passage from the natural to the supernatural.
The saint draws inspiration from Sacred Scripture, particularly the Song of Songs, for the final symbol of the Bride and Bridegroom which enables her to describe, in the seventh room, the four crowning aspects of Christian life: the Trinitarian, the Christological, the anthropological and the ecclesial.
St Teresa devoted the Libro de la fundaciones (“book of the foundations”), which she wrote between 1573 and 1582, to her activity as foundress of the reformed Carmels. In this book she speaks of the life of the nascent religious group. This account, like her autobiography, was written above all in order to give prominence to God’s action in the work of founding new monasteries.